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      Bovine coronavirus in Uruguay: genetic diversity, risk factors and transboundary introductions from neighboring countries

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          Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is a recognized cause of severe neonatal calf diarrhea, with a negative impact on animal welfare, leading to economic losses to the livestock industry. Cattle production is one of the most important economic sectors in Uruguay. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of BCoV infections and their genetic diversity in Uruguayan calves and to describe the evolutionary history of the virus in South America. The overall detection rate of BCoV in Uruguay was 7.8% (64/824): 7.7% (60/782) in dairy cattle and 9.5% (4/42) in beef cattle. The detection rate of BCoV in samples from deceased and live calves was 10.0% (6/60) and 7.6% (58/763), respectively. Interestingly, there was a lower frequency of BCoV detection in calves born to vaccinated dams (3.3%, 8/240) than in calves born to unvaccinated dams (12.2%, 32/263) (OR: 4.02, 95%CI: 1.81–8.90; p = 0.00026). The frequency of BCoV detection was higher in colder months (11.8%, 44/373) than in warmer months (1.5%, 3/206) (OR: 9.05, 95%CI: 2.77–29.53, p = 0.000013). Uruguayan strains grouped together in two different lineages: one with Argentinean strains and the other with Brazilian strains. Both BCoV lineages were estimated to have entered Uruguay in 2013: one of them from Brazil (95%HPD interval: 2011–2014) and the other from Argentina (95%HPD interval: 2010–2014). The lineages differed by four amino acid changes, and both were divergent from the Mebus reference strain. Surveillance should be maintained to detect possible emerging strains that can clearly diverge at the antigenic level from vaccine strains.

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          Most cited references 27

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          Morbidity in Swedish dairy calves from birth to 90 days of age and individual calf-level risk factors for infectious diseases.

          The health of 3081 heifer calves born in 122 dairy herds in the south-west of Sweden from 1 January to 31 December, 1998, was monitored from birth until 90 days of age. The calves were kept either in individual pens (n=2167), in group pens, with 3-8 calves to a pen and manual feeding of milk (n=440), in group pens with 6-30 calves per pen and an automatic milk-feeding system (n=431), or with their dams (n=43). Disease incidence was recorded by farmers and project veterinarians, who clinically examined the calves and auscultated their lungs every 2-3 months. A disease was graded as 'severe' if the general loss of condition or of appetite in the calf continued for >2 days or if the animal suffered severe weight loss due to the disease. The effects of season, breed, housing, and type of colostrum feeding, and time, place and supervision of calving on the incidences of diarrhea, severe diarrhea, respiratory disease, other infectious disease and moderately to severely increased respiratory sounds, were analyzed by logistic-regression models (with herd as a random effect). The total morbidity rate was 0.081 cases per calf-month at risk. Incidence rates of arthritis, diarrhea, omphalophlebitis, respiratory disease and ringworm were 0.002, 0.035, 0.005, 0.025 and 0.009 cases per calf-months at risk, respectively. The odds ratios for diarrhea and severe diarrhea were increased in Swedish Red and Whites (OR: 1.6, 2.3) and in calves that received colostrum from first-lactation cows (OR: 1.3-1.8), and for severe diarrhea in calves born in summer or that received colostrum through suckling (OR: 1.7, 1.8). The odds ratios for respiratory disease and increased respiratory sounds were increased in calves housed in large-group pens with an automatic milk-feeding system (OR: 2.2, 2.8). Supervision of calving was associated with a decreased odds ratio for respiratory disease (OR: 0.7) and birth in individual maternity pen or tie stalls with a decreased odds ratio for increased respiratory sounds (OR: 0.5-0.6). Cross-breeds with beef breeds were associated with increased odds ratios for increased respiratory sounds (OR: 2.1-4.3) and colostrum from second-lactation cows and birth during night for other infectious disease (OR: 1.6, 1.5).
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            Bovine coronavirus

             M.A Clark (1993)
            Summary This review aims to summarize current data describing the characteristics of bovine coronavirus (BCV) and the three clinical syndromes with which this virus is associated. The first half of this paper consists of a general description of the virus, commencing with a brief outline of the methods used for in vitro growth. The structure of the virus is then described in more detail, with particular reference to the structure and functions of the four major viral proteins. This is followed by an outline of the unique replication strategy adopted by coronaviruses. The second half of this review discusses the clinical significance of the virus, beginning with a detailed account of BCV-induced neonatal calf diarrhoea, the clinical syndrome with which this virus is most commonly associated. The clinical and epidemiological importance of BCV respiratory tract infection is then discussed, and finally the evidence supporting the aetiological role of BCV in outbreaks of winter dysentery in adult cattle is examined.
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              The Molecular Biology of Coronaviruses


                Author and article information

                Arch Virol
                Arch. Virol
                Archives of Virology
                Springer Vienna (Vienna )
                27 August 2019
                : 164
                : 11
                : 2715-2724
                [1 ]GRID grid.11630.35, ISNI 0000000121657640, Laboratorio de Virología Molecular, , CENUR Litoral Norte, Centro Universitario de Salto, Universidad de la República, ; Rivera 1350, 50000 Salto, Uruguay
                [2 ]GRID grid.473327.6, ISNI 0000 0004 0604 4346, Instituto Nacional de Investigación Agropecuaria (INIA), Plataforma de Investigación en Salud Animal, ; Ruta 50 km 11, La Estanzuela, 70000 Colonia, Uruguay
                [3 ]GRID grid.11630.35, ISNI 0000000121657640, Facultad de Veterinaria, , Universidad de la República, ; Alberto Lasplaces 1620, Montevideo, Uruguay
                [4 ]Centro de Investigación y Experimentación Dr. Alejandro Gallinal, Secretariado Uruguayo de la Lana, Ruta 7 km 140, Cerro Colorado, Florida, Uruguay
                [5 ]GRID grid.419231.c, ISNI 0000 0001 2167 7174, Sección de Virus Gastroentéricos, Instituto de Virología, CICV y A, INTA Castelar, ; Buenos Aires, Argentina
                Author notes

                Handling Editor: Zhenhai Chen.

                © Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2019

                This article is made available via the PMC Open Access Subset for unrestricted research re-use and secondary analysis in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for the duration of the World Health Organization (WHO) declaration of COVID-19 as a global pandemic.

                Funded by: FundRef, Instituto Nacional de Investigacion Agropecuaria, Uruguay;
                Award ID: [grant PL_015 N-15156]
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: Universidad de la República-Uruguay
                Award ID: PDU Virología
                Award Recipient :
                Original Article
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                © Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2019

                Microbiology & Virology


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