Randomization to intensive blood pressure lowering (SBP<120 mm Hg) compared to a less
intensive BP target (SBP <140 mm Hg) in the ACCORD-BP trial resulted in a more rapid
decline in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Whether this reflects
hemodynamic effects or intrinsic kidney damage is unknown. Longitudinal analysis of
a sub-group of clinical trial participants. A subgroup of 529 participants in ACCORD-BP.
Urine biomarkers of tubular injury (kidney injury molecule 1 [KIM-1], interleukin
18 [IL-18]), repair (YKL-40) and inflammation (monocyte chemoattractant protein 1
[MCP-1]) at baseline and year 2. Changes in eGFR from baseline to 2 years. We compared
changes in biomarkers and changes in eGFR across participants treated to an intensive
vs. less intensive BP goal using analysis of covariance. Of the 529 participants,
260 had been randomized to the intensive and 269 to the standard blood pressure arm.
Mean age was 62 ± 6.5 and eGFR 90 ml/min/1.73m 2 . Baseline clinical characteristics,
eGFR, urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR), and urinary biomarkers were similar
across BP treatment groups. Compared to less intensive BP treatment, eGFR was 9.2
ml/min/1.73m 2 lower in the intensive BP treatment group at year 2. Despite the eGFR
reduction, within this treatment group ACR was 30% lower and 4 urinary biomarkers
were unchanged or lower at year 2. Also within this group, participants with largest
declines in eGFR had greater reductions in urinary IL-18 and YKL-40. In a subgroup
analysis of participants developing incident CKD (sustained 30% decline and eGFR <
60 ml/min/1.73 m 2 , n=77), neither ACR nor 4 biomarkers increased in the intensive
treatment group, whereas one biomarker, IL-18, increased in the less intensive treatment
group. Few participants with advanced baseline CKD. Comparisons across treatment groups
do not represent comparisons of treatment arms created solely through randomization.
Among a subset of ACCORD-BP trial participants, intensive BP control was associated
reductions of eGFR but not with an increase in injury markers. These findings support
that eGFR decline observed with intensive BP goals in ACCORD participants may predominantly
reflect hemodynamic alterations.