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      α 4β 1 Integrin (VLA-4) Blockade Attenuates both Early and Late Leukocyte Recruitment and Neointimal Growth following Carotid Injury in Apolipoprotein E (–/–) Mice

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          Abstract

          Background: The α<sub>4</sub>β<sub>1</sub> integrin (VLA-4) supports rolling and firm adhesion of leukocytes to inflamed tissues via ligation of VCAM-1 or fibronectin expressed on the activated endothelium. We tested the hypothesis that VLA-4 mediates leukocyte recruitment and neointimal growth after arterial injury in the atherosclerosis-prone apolipoprotein E (ApoE)-deficient mouse. Methods: ApoE (–/–) mice fed a Western diet underwent air desiccation injury, and the expression patterns of VLA-4 and VCAM-1 were determined by immunohistochemistry (IHC). To determine the effect of targeted VLA-4 blockade on leukocyte recruitment and neointimal growth, ApoE (–/–) mice received an intraperitoneal injection of a VLA-4 neutralizing monoclonal antibody (PS/2) at the time of injury alone or over a prolonged administration course. Additional mice received an isotype control antibody. Results: IHC demonstrated a marked increase in VLA-4 expression 7 days following injury. Prolonged administration of PS/2 resulted in a 72% reduction (p < 0.02) in neointimal growth 28 days following injury. IHC revealed a marked 95% reduction in neutrophil recruitment at 7 days and a 48% reduction in macrophage recruitment 28 days following injury with prolonged PS/2 administration. Conclusions: Prolonged VLA-4 blockade reduces leukocyte recruitment and neointimal growth following air desiccation injury in ApoE (–/–) mice. These findings demonstrate an important role for VLA-4 in the response to arterial injury.

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          Most cited references 9

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          The integrin VLA-4 supports tethering and rolling in flow on VCAM-1

           T Springer,  R. Alon,  M Carr (1995)
          Selectins have previously been shown to tether a flowing leukocyte to a vessel wall and mediate rolling. Here, we report that an intergrin, VLA- 4, can also support tethering and rolling. Blood T lymphocytes and alpha 4 integrin-transfected cells can tether in shear flow, and then roll, through binding of the intergrin VLA-4 to purified VCAM-1 on the wall of a flow chamber. VLA-4 transfectants showed similar tethering and rolling on TNF-stimulated endothelium. Tethering efficiency, rolling velocity, and resistance to detachment are related to VCAM-1 density. Tethering and rolling did not occur on ICAM-1, fibronectin, or fibronectin fragments, and tethering did not require integrin activation or the presence of an alpha 4 cytoplasmic domain. Arrest of rolling cells on VCAM-1 occurred spontaneously, and/or was triggered by integrin activating agents Mn2+, phorbol ester, and mAb TS2/16. These agents, and the alpha 4 cytoplasmic domain, promoted increased resistance to detachment. Together the results show that VLA-4 is a versatile integrin that can mediate tethering, rolling, and firm arrest on VCAM-1.
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            Evidence for a role of the integrin VLA-4 in lympho-hemopoiesis

            Adhesion molecules are probably required for retention of maturing lymphocyte precursors in bone marrow, where they closely interact with and are dependent on stromal cells. Lymphomyeloid cell lines avidly adhere to cloned stromal cell lines in culture and screening pairs of these resulted in a selection strategy for a new monoclonal antibody to a leukocyte adhesion molecule. Immunoprecipitation analyses and comparison to a previously described antibody showed that it recognizes the alpha 4 chain of the integrin, VLA-4. This antibody totally inhibited lymphopoiesis and retarded myelopoiesis in long-term bone marrow cultures. A similar selection strategy resulted in two additional antibodies which define a single 100-kD species on stromal cells. This stromal cell adhesion molecule is a potential counter- receptor/ligand for VLA-4 on murine lympho-myeloid cells. Our findings suggest a new role for VLA-4 in lymphoid progenitor-microenvironment interactions. Recognition molecules that function in cell migration and inflammation in peripheral tissues may be important for steady-state lymphopoiesis within bone marrow.
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              Functional alpha4-integrin: a newly identified pathway of neutrophil recruitment in critically ill septic patients.

              Using a novel flow chamber assay system and whole blood, we show that leukocytes from septic individuals have a four-fold elevation of adhesion, but not rolling, on a P-selectin/beta2-integrin substrate. Most leukocytes from septic patients (but not healthy controls) that bound vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) were neutrophils. All adhesion was inhibited with an antibody specific for the VCAM-1 ligand alpha4-integrin. The alpha4-integrin was present on neutrophils from septic patients but not on neutrophils from patients with localized bacterial infections. The plasma milieu of septic patients was sufficient to induce neutrophils from healthy subjects to bind VCAM-1 under flow conditions. This is the first description of alpha4-integrin/VCAM-1 pathway of neutrophil recruitment in human disease. This pathway may provide a new therapeutic target to reduce inappropriate neutrophil adhesion without altering the normal yet critical beta2-integrin-mediated adhesive function of neutrophils.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                JVR
                J Vasc Res
                10.1159/issn.1018-1172
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                1018-1172
                1423-0135
                2004
                June 2004
                30 June 2004
                : 41
                : 3
                : 252-260
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Medicine, Cardiovascular Division, bCardiovascular Research Center, cBiomedical Engineering, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, Va., USA
                Article
                78646 J Vasc Res 2004;41:252–260
                10.1159/000078646
                15153775
                © 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 6, References: 29, Pages: 9
                Categories
                Research Paper

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