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      Current and Prospective Methods for Plant Disease Detection

      , *

      Biosensors

      MDPI

      food loss, plant pathogen, volatile organic compounds, sensor, enzyme, antibody, DNA/RNA, bacteriophage

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          Abstract

          Food losses due to crop infections from pathogens such as bacteria, viruses and fungi are persistent issues in agriculture for centuries across the globe. In order to minimize the disease induced damage in crops during growth, harvest and postharvest processing, as well as to maximize productivity and ensure agricultural sustainability, advanced disease detection and prevention in crops are imperative. This paper reviews the direct and indirect disease identification methods currently used in agriculture. Laboratory-based techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), immunofluorescence (IF), fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), flow cytometry (FCM) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) are some of the direct detection methods. Indirect methods include thermography, fluorescence imaging and hyperspectral techniques. Finally, the review also provides a comprehensive overview of biosensors based on highly selective bio-recognition elements such as enzyme, antibody, DNA/RNA and bacteriophage as a new tool for the early identification of crop diseases.

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          Most cited references 122

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          Food security: the challenge of feeding 9 billion people.

          Continuing population and consumption growth will mean that the global demand for food will increase for at least another 40 years. Growing competition for land, water, and energy, in addition to the overexploitation of fisheries, will affect our ability to produce food, as will the urgent requirement to reduce the impact of the food system on the environment. The effects of climate change are a further threat. But the world can produce more food and can ensure that it is used more efficiently and equitably. A multifaceted and linked global strategy is needed to ensure sustainable and equitable food security, different components of which are explored here.
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            Update on the environmental and economic costs associated with alien-invasive species in the United States

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              Crop losses to pests

               E. Oerke (2006)
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                Biosensors (Basel)
                Biosensors (Basel)
                biosensors
                Biosensors
                MDPI
                2079-6374
                06 August 2015
                September 2015
                : 5
                : 3
                : 537-561
                Affiliations
                Nano Electrochemistry Laboratory, College of Engineering, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA; E-Mail: fangyi@ 123456uga.edu
                Author notes
                [* ]Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; E-Mail: rama@ 123456uga.edu ; Tel.: +1-706-542-4101.
                Article
                biosensors-05-00537
                10.3390/bios5030537
                4600171
                26287253
                © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

                This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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