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      Osteopontin and Calcium Stone Formation

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          Abstract

          Osteopontin (OPN) is a phosphorylated protein of wide tissue distribution that is found in association with dystrophic calcification including in the organic matrix of kidney stones. It is a strong inhibitor of crystal formation and growth in vitro, but there is still debate regarding its effects upon crystal adhesion to tubular epithelial cells. In this brief review, we will outline the evidence implicating OPN in stone disease with the primary emphasis being on the interaction of OPN with calcium oxalate (CaOx), the major constituent of calcium containing stones. Finally, preliminary data is presented regarding the amounts and features of OPN present in the urine of stone formers and normal individuals.

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          Most cited references 33

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          Osteopontin as a means to cope with environmental insults: regulation of inflammation, tissue remodeling, and cell survival.

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            Flexible structures of SIBLING proteins, bone sialoprotein, and osteopontin.

            Bone sialoprotein (BSP) and osteopontin (OPN) are two members of the SIBLING (Small Integrin-Binding LIgand, N-linked Glycoprotein) family of genetically related proteins that are clustered on human chromosome 4. We present evidence that this entire family is the result of duplication and subsequent divergent evolution of a single ancient gene. The solution structures of these two post-translationally modified recombinant proteins were solved by one dimensional proton NMR and transverse relaxation times. The polypeptide backbones of both free BSP and OPN rapidly sample an ensemble of conformations consistent with them both being completely unstructured in solution. This flexibility appears to enable these relatively small glycoproteins to rapidly associate with a number of different binding partners including other proteins as well as the mineral phase of bones and teeth. These proteins often function by bridging two proteins of fixed structures into a biologically active complex. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.
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              Obstructive uropathy in the mouse: role of osteopontin in interstitial fibrosis and apoptosis.

              Osteopontin is a macrophage adhesive protein that is expressed by renal tubules in tubulointerstitial disease. To investigate the function of OPN, we induced tubulointerstitial disease in OPN null mutant (OPN-/-) and wild-type (OPN+/+) mice by unilateral ureteral ligation. Tissue was analyzed for macrophages (ED-1), types I and IV collagen deposition, TGF-beta expression, and for tubular and interstitial cell apoptosis. Obstructed kidneys from both OPN-/- and OPN+/+ mice developed hydronephrosis, tubular atrophy, interstitial inflammation and fibrosis. OPN was absent in OPN-/- kidneys but was increased in obstructed OPN+/+ kidneys. Macrophage influx, measured by computer-assisted quantitative immunostaining, was less in OPN-/- mice compared to OPN+/+ mice at day 4 (threefold, P < 0.02), day 7 (fivefold, P < 0.02), but not at day 14. Interstitial deposition of types I and IV collagen were also two- to fourfold less in obstructed OPN-/- kidneys (P < 0.02). There was also a reduction of TGF-beta mRNA expression in the interstitium at day 7 (by in situ hybridization) and a near significant 34% reduction in cortical TGF-beta activity (P = 0.06) compared to obstructed OPN+/+ kidneys at day 14. Obstructed kidneys from OPN-/- mice also had more interstitial and tubular apoptotic cells (TUNEL assay) compared to obstructed OPN+/+ mice at all time points. The ability of OPN to act as a cell survival factor was also documented by showing that the apoptosis of serum-starved NRK52E renal epithelial cells was markedly enhanced in the presence of neutralizing anti-OPN antibody. OPN mediates early interstitial macrophage influx and interstitial fibrosis in unilateral ureteral obstruction. OPN may also function as a survival factor for renal tubulointerstitial cells.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEP
                Nephron Physiol
                10.1159/issn.1660-2137
                Nephron Physiology
                S. Karger AG
                978-3-8055-7852-3
                978-3-318-06156-7
                1660-2137
                2004
                October 2004
                19 October 2004
                : 98
                : 2
                : p43-p47
                Affiliations
                aNephrology Division, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, and Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisc., USA; bPhagocyte Laboratory, MRC Center for Inflammation Research, University of Edinburgh Medical School, Edinburgh, UK
                Article
                80263 Nephron Physiol 2004;98:p43–p47
                10.1159/000080263
                15499214
                © 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, References: 46, Pages: 1
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/80263
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