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      Pigment epithelium-derived factor in lipid metabolic disorders

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          Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is a secreted glycoprotein that has anti-angiogenic, anti-proliferative, neurotrophic and immunomodulatory properties. PEDF has recently emerged as a critical metabolic regulatory protein since the discovery of its modulatory activities in the lipolytic pathway by binding to adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL). Despite being beneficial in maintaining the homeostasis of hepatic lipid accumulation, PEDF has been uncovered an unfavorable role associated with insulin resistance. The molecular events that connect these two apparent distinct observations have been controversial and remained largely unknown. Therefore in this short review, we attempt to summarize the current findings of PEDF regarding its lipid metabolic functions and provide perspectives in identifying PEDF as a potential therapeutic target in lipid disorders.

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          Identification of a lipase-linked cell membrane receptor for pigment epithelium-derived factor.

          Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is an extracellular multifunctional protein belonging to the serpin superfamily with demonstrable neurotrophic, gliastatic, neuronotrophic, antiangiogenic, and antitumorigenic properties. We have previously provided biochemical evidence for high affinity PEDF-binding sites and proteins in plasma membranes of retina, retinoblastoma, and CNS cells. This study was designed to reveal a receptor involved in the biological activities of PEDF. Using a yeast two-hybrid screening, we identified a novel gene from pigment epithelium of the human retina that codes for a PEDF-binding partner, which we term PEDF-R. The derived polypeptide has putative transmembrane, intracellular and extracellular regions, and a phospholipase domain. Recently, PEDF-R (TTS-2.2/independent phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2))zeta and mouse desnutrin/ATGL) has been described in adipose cells as a member of the new calcium-independent PLA(2)/nutrin/patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 2 (PNPLA2) family that possesses triglyceride lipase and acylglycerol transacylase activities. Here we describe the PEDF-R gene expression in the retina and its heterologous expression by bacterial and eukaryotic systems, and we demonstrate that its protein product has specific and high binding affinity for PEDF, has a potent phospholipase A(2) activity that liberates fatty acids, and is associated with eukaryotic cell membranes. Most importantly, PEDF binding stimulates the enzymatic phospholipase A(2) activity of PEDF-R. In conclusion, we have identified a novel PEDF-R gene in the retina for a phospholipase-linked membrane protein with high affinity for PEDF, suggesting a molecular pathway by which ligand/receptor interaction on the cell surface could generate a cellular signal.
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            Pigment epithelium-derived factor: neurotrophic activity and identification as a member of the serine protease inhibitor gene family.

            Cultured pigment epithelial cells of the fetal human retina secrete a protein, pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), that induces a neuronal phenotype in cultured human retinoblastoma cells. Morphological changes include the induction of an extensive neurite meshwork and the establishment of corona-like cellular aggregates surrounding a central lumen. The differentiated cells also show increases in the expression of neuron-specific enolase and the 200-kDa neurofilament subunit. Amino acid and DNA sequence data demonstrate that PEDF belongs to the serine protease inhibitor (serpin) family. The PEDF gene contains a typical signal-peptide sequence, initiator methionine codon, and polyadenylylation signal and matches the size of other members of the serpin superfamily (e.g., alpha 1-antitrypsin). It lacks homology, however, at the putative serpin reactive center. Thus, PEDF could exert a paracrine effect in the embryonic retina, influencing neuronal differentiation by a mechanism that does not involve classic inhibition of serine protease activity.
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              Laminin receptor involvement in the anti-angiogenic activity of pigment epithelium-derived factor.

              Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is a multifunctional protein with neurotrophic, anti-oxidative, and anti-inflammatory properties. It is also one of the most potent endogenous inhibitors of angiogenesis, playing an important role in restricting tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. Studies show that PEDF binds to cell surface proteins, but little is known about how it exerts its effects. Recently, research identified phospholipase A(2)/nutrin/patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 2 as one PEDF receptor. To identify other receptors, we performed yeast two-hybrid screening using PEDF as bait and discovered that the non-integrin 37/67-kDa laminin receptor (LR) is another PEDF receptor. Co-immunoprecipitation, His tag pulldown, and surface plasmon resonance assays confirmed the interaction between PEDF and LR. Using the yeast two-hybrid method, we further restricted the LR-interacting domain on PEDF to a 34-amino acid (aa) peptide (aa 44-77) and the PEDF-interacting domain on LR to a 91-aa fragment (aa 120-210). A 25-mer peptide named P46 (aa 46-70), derived from 34-mer, interacts with LR in surface plasmon resonance assays and binds to endothelial cell (EC) membranes. This peptide induces EC apoptosis and inhibits EC migration, tube-like network formation in vitro, and retinal angiogenesis ex vivo, like PEDF. Our results suggest that LR is a real PEDF receptor that mediates PEDF angiogenesis inhibition.

                Author and article information

                Biomed J
                Biomed J
                Biomedical Journal
                Chang Gung University
                02 June 2018
                April 2018
                02 June 2018
                : 41
                : 2
                : 102-108
                [a ]Institute for Translational Research in Biomedicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
                [b ]Liver Transplantation Center, Department of Surgery, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
                [c ]Division of Hepato-Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
                Author notes
                [] Corresponding author. Institute for Translational Research in Biomedicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, 123 DaPi Rd., Niaosong, Kaohsiung 833, Taiwan. huangkt@ 123456cgmh.org.tw
                © 2018 Chang Gung University. Publishing services by Elsevier B.V.

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

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