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      Statins for the Prevention of Contrast-Induced Acute Kidney Injury

      * ,

      Nephron Clinical Practice

      S. Karger AG

      Contrast, Statins, Acute kidney injury

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          Abstract

          Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common medical problem, especially in patients undergoing cardiovascular procedures. The risk of kidney damage has multiple determinants and is often related to or exacerbated by intravenous or intra-arterial iodinated contrast. Contrast-induced AKI (CI-AKI) has been associated with an increased risk of subsequent myocardial infarction, stroke, the development of heart failure, rehospitalization, progression of chronic kidney disease, end-stage renal disease, and death. Statins have been studied extensively in the setting of chronic kidney disease and they have been shown to reduce albuminuria, but they have had no effect on the progressive reduction of glomerular filtration or the need for renal replacement therapy. Several meta-analyses have shown a protective effect of short-term statin administration on CI-AKI and led to two large randomized controlled trials evaluating the role of rosuvastatin in the prevention of CI-AKI in high-risk patients with acute coronary syndrome and diabetes mellitus. Both trials showed a benefit of rosuvastatin prior to contrast administration in a statin-naive patient population. In aggregate, these studies support the short-term use of statins specifically for the prevention of CI-AKI in patients undergoing coronary angiography with or without percutaneous coronary intervention.

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          Most cited references 17

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          Temporal changes in incidence of dialysis-requiring AKI.

          The population epidemiology of AKI is not well described. Here, we analyzed data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, a nationally representative dataset, to identify cases of dialysis-requiring AKI using validated International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes. From 2000 to 2009, the incidence of dialysis-requiring AKI increased from 222 to 533 cases per million person-years, averaging a 10% increase per year (incidence rate ratio=1.10, 95% CI=1.10-1.11 per year). Older age, male sex, and black race associated with higher incidence of dialysis-requiring AKI. The rapid increase in incidence was evident in all age, sex, and race subgroups examined. Temporal changes in the population distribution of age, race, and sex as well as trends of sepsis, acute heart failure, and receipt of cardiac catheterization and mechanical ventilation accounted for about one third of the observed increase in dialysis-requiring AKI among hospitalized patients. The total number of deaths associated with dialysis-requiring AKI rose from 18,000 in 2000 to nearly 39,000 in 2009. In conclusion, the incidence of dialysis-requiring AKI increased rapidly in all patient subgroups in the past decade in the United States, and the number of deaths associated with dialysis-requiring AKI more than doubled.
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            Preoperative renal risk stratification.

            After cardiac surgery, acute renal failure (ARF) requiring dialysis develops in 1% to 5% of patients and is strongly associated with perioperative morbidity and mortality. Prior studies have attempted to identify predictors of ARF but have had insufficient power to perform multivariable analyses or to develop risk stratification algorithms. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 43 642 patients who underwent coronary artery bypass or valvular heart surgery in 43 Department of Veterans Affairs medical centers between April 1987 and March 1994. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent predictors of ARF requiring dialysis. A risk stratification algorithm derived from recursive partitioning was constructed and was validated on an independent sample of 3795 patients operated on between April and December 1994. The overall risk of ARF requiring dialysis was 1.1%. Thirty-day mortality in patients with ARF was 63.7%, compared with 4.3% in patients without ARF. Ten clinical variables related to baseline cardiovascular disease and renal function were independently associated with the risk of ARF. A risk stratification algorithm partitioned patients into low-risk (0.4%), medium-risk (0.9% to 2.8%), and high-risk (> or = 5.0%) groups on the basis of several of these factors and their interactions. The risk of ARF after cardiac surgery can be accurately quantified on the basis of readily available preoperative data. These findings may be used by physicians and surgeons to provide patients with improved risk estimates and to target high-risk subgroups for interventions aimed at reducing the risk and ameliorating the consequences of this serious complication.
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              Statins for improving renal outcomes: a meta-analysis.

              Statins frequently are used to prevent cardiovascular events. Several recent studies suggest that statins also may have renal benefits, although this is controversial. This systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to assess the effect of statins on change in kidney function and urinary protein excretion. Medline, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, conference proceedings, and the authors' personal files were searched. Published or unpublished randomized, controlled trials or crossover trials of statins that reported assessment of kidney function or proteinuria were included, and studies of individuals with ESRD were excluded. Data were extracted for study design, subject characteristics, type of statin and dose, baseline/change in cholesterol levels, and outcomes (change in measured or estimated GFR [eGFR] and/or urinary protein excretion). Weighted mean differences were calculated for the change in GFR between statin and control groups using a random-effects model. A random-effects model also was used to calculate the standardized mean difference for the change in urinary protein excretion between groups. Twenty-seven eligible studies with 39,704 participants (21 with data for eGFR and 20 for proteinuria or albuminuria) were identified. Overall, the change in the weighted mean differences for eGFR was statistically significant (1.22 ml/min per yr slower in statin recipients; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.44 to 2.00). In subgroup analysis, the benefit of statin therapy was statistically significant in studies of participants with cardiovascular disease (0.93 ml/min per yr slower than control subjects; 95% CI 0.10 to 1.76) but was NS for studies of participants with diabetic or hypertensive kidney disease or glomerulonephritis. The standardized mean difference for the reduction in albuminuria or proteinuria as a result of statin therapy was statistically significant (0.58 units of SD greater in statin recipients; 95% CI 0.17 to 0.98). Statin therapy seems to reduce proteinuria modestly and results in a small reduction in the rate of kidney function loss, especially in populations with cardiovascular disease.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEC
                Nephron Clin Pract
                10.1159/issn.1660-2110
                Nephron Clinical Practice
                S. Karger AG
                1660-2110
                2014
                September 2014
                24 September 2014
                : 127
                : 1-4
                : 165-171
                Affiliations
                Baylor University Medical Center, Baylor Heart and Vascular Institute, Baylor Jack and Jane Hamilton Heart and Vascular Hospital, Dallas, Tex., and The Heart Hospital, Plano, Tex., USA
                Author notes
                *Peter A. McCullough, MD, MPH, Baylor Heart and Vascular Institute, 621 N. Hall St., H030, Dallas, TX 75226 (USA), E-Mail peteramccullough@gmail.com
                Article
                363202 Nephron Clin Pract 2014;127:165-171
                10.1159/000363202
                25343843
                © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Pages: 7
                Categories
                Review

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                Acute kidney injury, Statins, Contrast

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