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      COVID-19 Experience in Hemodialysis Patients: A Cue for Therapeutic Heparin-Based Strategies?

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          In our opinion, the use of heparin could play a crucial role in these patients. In fact, recent studies have shown that heparin, the most commonly used anticoagulant during HD procedures, had anti-inflammatory properties and a direct antiviral action, due to its ability to prevent SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus entry into host cells. These activities, together with its anticoagulant action, could explain the ability of heparin to ameliorate COVID-19 clinical course.

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          Most cited references 8

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          Is Open Access

          Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Heparin and Its Derivatives: A Systematic Review

          Background. Heparin, used clinically as an anticoagulant, also has anti-inflammatory properties. The purpose of this systematic review was to provide a comprehensive review regarding the efficacy and safety of heparin and its derivatives as anti-inflammatory agents. Methods. We searched the following databases up to March 2012: Pub Med, Scopus, Web of Science, Ovid, Elsevier, and Google Scholar using combination of Mesh terms. Randomized Clinical Trials (RCTs) and trials with quasi-experimental design in clinical setting published in English were included. Quality assessments of RCTs were performed using Jadad score and Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) checklist. Results. A total of 280 relevant studies were reviewed and 57 studies met the inclusion criteria. Among them 48 studies were RCTs. About 65% of articles had score of 3 and higher according to Jadad score. Twelve studies had a quality score > 40% according to CONSORT items. Asthma (n = 7), inflammatory bowel disease (n = 5), cardiopulmonary bypass (n = 8), and cataract surgery (n = 6) were the most studied disease condition. Forty studies use unfractionated heparin (UFH) for intervention; the remaining studies use low molecular weight heparin (LMWH). Conclusion. Despite the conflicting results, heparin seems to be a safe and effective anti-inflammatory agent; although it is shown that heparin can decrease the level of inflammatory biomarkers and improves patient conditions, still more data from larger rigorously designed studies are needed to support use of heparin as an anti-inflammatory agent in clinical setting. However, because of the association between inflammation, atherogenesis, thrombogenesis, and cell proliferation, heparin and related compounds with pleiotropic effects may have greater therapeutic efficacy than compounds acting against a single target.
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            Expert consensus on comprehensive treatment of coronavirus disease in Shanghai 2019.

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              COVID-19 and dialysis units: what do we know now and what should we do?

               TA Ikizler (2020)

                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                August 2020
                11 June 2020
                : 144
                : 8
                : 383-385
                aDepartment of Public Health, Chair of Nephrology, University Federico II of Naples, Naples, Italy
                bInstitute for Biomedical Research and Innovation, National Research Council of Italy, Palermo, Italy
                Author notes
                *Antonio Pisani, Department of Public Health, Chair of Nephrology, University Federico II of Naples, IT–80131 Naples (Italy),
                508638 Nephron 2020;144:383–385
                © 2020 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Pages: 3
                Clinical Practice: Commentary

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                Coronavirus disease 2019, Hemodialysis, Heparin


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