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      The Reciprocal Interactions between Polyphenols and Gut Microbiota and Effects on Bioaccessibility


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          As of late, polyphenols have increasingly interested the scientific community due to their proposed health benefits. Much of this attention has focused on their bioavailability. Polyphenol–gut microbiota interactions should be considered to understand their biological functions. The dichotomy between the biotransformation of polyphenols into their metabolites by gut microbiota and the modulation of gut microbiota composition by polyphenols contributes to positive health outcomes. Although there are many studies on the in vivo bioavailability of polyphenols, the mutual relationship between polyphenols and gut microbiota is not fully understood. This review focuses on the biotransformation of polyphenols by gut microbiota, modulation of gut microbiota by polyphenols, and the effects of these two-way mutual interactions on polyphenol bioavailability, and ultimately, human health.

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          The microbiome and butyrate regulate energy metabolism and autophagy in the mammalian colon.

          The microbiome is being characterized by large-scale sequencing efforts, yet it is not known whether it regulates host metabolism in a general versus tissue-specific manner or which bacterial metabolites are important. Here, we demonstrate that microbiota have a strong effect on energy homeostasis in the colon compared to other tissues. This tissue specificity is due to colonocytes utilizing bacterially produced butyrate as their primary energy source. Colonocytes from germfree mice are in an energy-deprived state and exhibit decreased expression of enzymes that catalyze key steps in intermediary metabolism including the TCA cycle. Consequently, there is a marked decrease in NADH/NAD(+), oxidative phosphorylation, and ATP levels, which results in AMPK activation, p27(kip1) phosphorylation, and autophagy. When butyrate is added to germfree colonocytes, it rescues their deficit in mitochondrial respiration and prevents them from undergoing autophagy. The mechanism is due to butyrate acting as an energy source rather than as an HDAC inhibitor. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            Interaction between phenolics and gut microbiota: role in human health.

            Dietary phenolic compounds are often transformed before absorption. This transformation modulates their biological activity. Different studies have been carried out to understand gut microbiota transformations of particular polyphenol types and identify the responsible microorganisms. Although there are potentially thousands of different phenolic compounds in the diet, they are typically transformed to a much smaller number of metabolites. The aim of this review was to discuss the current information about the microbial degradation metabolites obtained from different phenolics and their formation pathways, identifying their differences and similarities. The modulation of gut microbial population by phenolics was also reviewed in order to understand the two-way phenolic-microbiota interaction. Clostridium and Eubacterium genera, which are phylogenetically associated, are other common elements involved in the metabolism of many phenolics. The health benefits from phenolic consumption should be attributed to their bioactive metabolites and also to the modulation of the intestinal bacterial population.
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              Resources and Biological Activities of Natural Polyphenols

              The oxidative stress imposed by reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays an important role in many chronic and degenerative diseases. As an important category of phytochemicals, phenolic compounds universally exist in plants, and have been considered to have high antioxidant ability and free radical scavenging capacity, with the mechanism of inhibiting the enzymes responsible for ROS production and reducing highly oxidized ROS. Therefore, phenolic compounds have attracted increasing attention as potential agents for preventing and treating many oxidative stress-related diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer, ageing, diabetes mellitus and neurodegenerative diseases. This review summarizes current knowledge of natural polyphenols, including resource, bioactivities, bioavailability and potential toxicity.

                Author and article information

                06 February 2016
                February 2016
                : 8
                : 2
                : 78
                [1 ]Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Okan Univesity, Tuzla, Istanbul TR-34959, Turkey; tugba.ozdal@ 123456okan.edu.tr
                [2 ]Department of Food Science, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA 01003, USA; davidsela@ 123456umass.edu
                [3 ]Institute of Chinese Medical Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicine, University of Macau, Taipa, Macau, China; jianboxiao@ 123456umac.mo
                [4 ]Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, Maslak, Istanbul TR-34469, Turkey; boyaci@ 123456itu.edu.tr
                [5 ]College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, National Engineering Research Centre for Fruits and Vegetables Processing, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, China; chenfangch@ 123456sina.com
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: capanogl@ 123456itu.edu.tr ; Tel.: +90-212-285-7340; Fax: +90-212-285-7333

                These authors contributed equally to this work.

                © 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

                This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons by Attribution (CC-BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                : 08 October 2015
                : 11 January 2016

                Nutrition & Dietetics
                polyphenols,phenolics,flavonoids,gut microbiota,microbial metabolism,bioavailability,health,interactions


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