Blood flow was measured in several tissues of the rabbit eye following intravitreal injection of a dose of endotoxin that induces an inflammatory response. In separate experiments, the vascular permeability of the inflamed eye was estimated by iris fluorescein angiography and by measuring protein influx into the aqueous humor. The effect of topical corticosteroid treatment upon blood flow and vascular permeability was also measured. Following intravitreal endotoxin injection, minor changes in blood flow occurred in retina and optic nerve head. Marked changes were observed in blood flow in iris, ciliary processes, and choroid. Steroid treatment had no effect upon the increased blood flow 24 h after the endotoxin injection, although from a clinical standpoint the steroid-treated eyes appeared less inflamed. Fluorescein angiography demonstrated a massive increase in iris vessel permeability 6 and 24 h following endotoxin injection. Topical steroid treatment reduced fluorescein entry into the anterior chamber at both time periods. On the other hand, the increase in protein influx into the aqueous humor in the endotoxin-inflamed eye was not inhibited by steroid pretreatment. It is suggested that corticosteroids have a selective effect upon the permeability of different components of the blood-aqueous barrier, namely the ciliary processes and the iris vasculature.