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      The inverted U-shaped relationship between performance appraisal interval and proactive work behavior: The dual time frame effect

      1 , 1 , 2
      Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal
      Scientific Journal Publishers Ltd

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          Abstract

          In consideration of how to promote employees' work proactivity in the time frame of performance appraisals, we focused on a time-related construct called the performance appraisal interval (PAI). Drawing from psychological momentum theory, we constructed a model of the dual effect of the PAI on employees' proactive work behavior. A cross-level analysis of 561 employees from 55 groups indicated that PAI was positively related to delayed gratification, but the effect decreased gradually as time passed. Delayed gratification was positively related to proactive work behavior and mediated the relationship between PAI and proactive work behavior. Second, PAI was positively related to perceived uncertainty and the effect gradually increased over time. Perceived uncertainty was negatively related to proactive work behavior and mediated the relationship between PAI and proactive work behavior. In this study we found a compatible explanatory mechanism to integrate the positive and negative effects of a given PAI, which provides a new explanatory mechanism for stimulating proactive work behavior.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal
          soc behav pers
          Scientific Journal Publishers Ltd
          0301-2212
          December 06 2023
          December 06 2023
          : 51
          : 12
          : 12725E-12735E
          Affiliations
          [1 ]School of Management, Shanghai University, People's Republic of China
          [2 ]School of Management, Shanghai University, and Hilton School of Hospitality Management, Sichuan Tourism University, People's Republic of China
          Article
          10.2224/sbp.12725
          0556b822-128d-4301-a5f5-0424feedc215
          © 2023
          History

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