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      Long-Lived States of Magnetically Equivalent Spins Populated by Dissolution-DNP and Revealed by Enzymatic Reactions**


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          Hyperpolarization by dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization ( d-DNP) offers a way of enhancing NMR signals by up to five orders of magnitude in metabolites and other small molecules. Nevertheless, the lifetime of hyperpolarization is inexorably limited, as it decays toward thermal equilibrium with the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation time. This lifetime can be extended by storing the hyperpolarization in the form of long-lived states (LLS) that are immune to most dominant relaxation mechanisms. Levitt and co-workers have shown how LLS can be prepared for a pair of inequivalent spins by d-DNP. Here, we demonstrate that this approach can also be applied to magnetically equivalent pairs of spins such as the two protons of fumarate, which can have very long LLS lifetimes. As in the case of para-hydrogen, these hyperpolarized equivalent LLS (HELLS) are not magnetically active. However, a chemical reaction such as the enzymatic conversion of fumarate into malate can break the magnetic equivalence and reveal intense NMR signals.

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          Optimization of an AMBER Force Field for the Artificial Nucleic Acid, LNA, and Benchmarking with NMR of L(CAAU)

          Locked Nucleic Acids (LNAs) are RNA analogues with an O2′-C4′ methylene bridge which locks the sugar into a C3′-endo conformation. This enhances hybridization to DNA and RNA, making LNAs useful in microarrays and potential therapeutics. Here, the LNA, L(CAAU), provides a simplified benchmark for testing the ability of molecular dynamics (MD) to approximate nucleic acid properties. LNA χ torsions and partial charges were parametrized to create AMBER parm99_LNA. The revisions were tested by comparing MD predictions with AMBER parm99 and parm99_LNA against a 200 ms NOESY NMR spectrum of L(CAAU). NMR indicates an A-Form equilibrium ensemble. In 3000 ns simulations starting with an A-form structure, parm99_LNA and parm99 provide 66% and 35% agreement, respectively, with NMR NOE volumes and 3 J-couplings. In simulations of L(CAAU) starting with all χ torsions in a syn conformation, only parm99_LNA is able to repair the structure. This implies methods for parametrizing force fields for nucleic acid mimics can reasonably approximate key interactions and that parm99_LNA will improve reliability of MD studies for systems with LNA. A method for approximating χ population distribution on the basis of base to sugar NOEs is also introduced.
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            A Twist-Bend Chiral Helix of 8nm Pitch in a Nematic Liquid Crystal of Achiral Molecular Dimers

            Freeze Fracture Transmission Electron Microscopy (FFTEM) study of the nanoscale structure of the so-called "twist-bend" nematic (NX) phase of the cyanobiphenyl (CB) dimer molecule CB(CH2)7CB reveals a stripe texture of fluid layers periodically arrayed with a bulk spacing of d ~ 8.3 nm. Fluidity and a rigorously maintained spacing produce long-range-ordered fluid layered focal conic domains. Absence of a lamellar x-ray reflection at wavevector q ~ 2{\pi}/8 nm-1 or its harmonics in synchrotron-based scattering experiments indicates that this periodic structure is achieved with no detectable associated modulation of the electron density, and thus has nematic molecular ordering. A search for periodic ordering with d ~ 8nm in CB(CH2)7CB using atomistic molecular dynamic computer simulation yielded equilibration of a conical twist-bend helixed nematic ground state, of the sort first proposed by Meyer, and envisioned in systems of bent molecules by Dozov and Memmer, We identify {\theta} ~ 33 degree as the cone angle, and p ~ 8nm as the full pitch of the helix, the shortest ever found in a nematic fluid.
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              Probucol prevents the progression of atherosclerosis in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbit, an animal model for familial hypercholesterolemia.

              In this study, we questioned whether in vivo probucol could prevent the progression of atherosclerosis in homozygous Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbits, an animal model for familial hypercholesterolemia. At 2 months of age, eight WHHL rabbits were divided into two groups. Group A (n = 4) was fed standard rabbit chow for 6 months. Group B (n = 4) was fed standard rabbit chow containing 1% probucol for 6 months. At the end of the experiments, average plasma concentrations of cholesterol were 704 +/- 121 mg/dl in group A and 584 +/- 61 mg/dl in group B, respectively. The percentage of surface area of total thoracic aorta with visible plaques in group A versus group B was 54.2% +/- 18.8% versus 7.0% +/- 6.3%, respectively. What was noteworthy was that the percentage of plaque in the descending thoracic aorta was almost negligible (0.2% +/- 0.2%) in group B rabbits compared to that in group A rabbits (41.1% +/- 20.2%). Low density lipoproteins (LDL) isolated from WHHL rabbits under treatment with probucol (group B) were shown to be highly resistant to oxidative modification by cupric ion and to be minimally recognized by macrophages. On the contrary, LDL from group A rabbits incubated with cupric ion showed a 7.4-fold increase in peroxides (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances) and a 4.3-fold increase in the synthesis of cholesteryl ester in macrophages compared to those of LDL from group B rabbits. Thus, probucol could definitely prevent the progression of atherosclerosis in homozygous WHHL rabbits in vivo by limiting oxidative LDL modification and foam cell transformation of macrophages.

                Author and article information

                Chemistry (Weinheim an Der Bergstrasse, Germany)
                WILEY-VCH Verlag (Weinheim )
                15 December 2014
                24 October 2014
                : 20
                : 51
                : 17113-17118
                [a ]Institut des Sciences et Ingénierie Chimiques, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland), Fax: (+41) 76-693-9435
                [b ]École Normale Supérieure-PSL Research University, Département de Chimie 24 rue Lhomond, 75005 Paris (France)
                [c ]Sorbonne Universités UPMC Univ Paris 06, 4 place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France)
                [d ]CNRS, UMR 7203 LBM, 75005 Paris (France)
                [e ]Bruker BioSpin AG, Industriestrasse 26 8117 Fällanden (Switzerland)
                Author notes

                DNP=Dynamic nuclear polarization

                © 2014 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

                This is an open access article under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial-NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.

                : 22 August 2014
                Full Papers

                dynamic nuclear polarization,enzymes,long-lived states,nmr spectroscopy,triplet–singlet imbalance


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