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      Association between bisphosphonate use and implant survival after primary total arthroplasty of the knee or hip: population based retrospective cohort study

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          Abstract

          Objectives To test whether bisphosphonate use is related to improved implant survival after total arthroplasty of the knee or hip.

          Design Population based retrospective cohort study.

          Setting Primary care data from the United Kingdom.

          Participants All patients undergoing primary total arthroplasty of the knee (n=18 726) or hip (n=23 269) in 1986-2006 within the United Kingdom’s General Practice Research Database. We excluded patients with a history of hip fracture before surgery or rheumatoid arthritis, and individuals younger than 40 years at surgery.

          Intervention Bisphosphonate users were classified as patients with at least six prescriptions of bisphosphonates or at least six months of prescribed bisphosphonate treatment with more than 80% adherence before revision surgery.

          Outcome measures Revision arthroplasties occurring after surgery, identified by READ and OXMIS codes. Parametric survival models were used to determine effects on implant survival with propensity score adjustment to account for confounding by indication.

          Results Of 41 995 patients undergoing primary hip or knee arthroplasty, we identified 1912 bisphosphonate users, who had a lower rate of revision at five years than non-users (0.93% (95% confidence interval 0.52% to 1.68%) v 1.96% (1.80% to 2.14%)). Implant survival was significantly longer in bisphosphonate users than in non-users in propensity adjusted models (hazard ratio 0.54 (0.29 to 0.99); P=0.047) and had an almost twofold increase in time to revision after hip or knee arthroplasty (time ratio 1.96 (1.01 to 3.82)). Assuming 2% failure over five years, we estimated that the number to treat to avoid one revision was 107 for oral bisphosphonates.

          Conclusions In patients undergoing lower limb arthroplasty, bisphosphonate use was associated with an almost twofold increase in implant survival time. These findings require replication and testing in experimental studies for confirmation.

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          Most cited references 34

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          Tamsulosin treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia and risk of severe hypotension in men aged 40-85 years in the United States: risk window analyses using between and within patient methodology

          Objective To characterize risk of hypotension requiring admission to hospital in middle aged and older men treated with tamsulosin for benign prostatic hyperplasia. Design Population based retrospective cohort study (between patient methodology) and self controlled case series (within patient methodology). Setting Healthcare claims data from the IMS Lifelink database in the United States. Participants Men aged 40-85 years with private US healthcare insurance entering the cohort at their first dispensing for tamsulosin or for a 5α reductase inhibitor (5ARI) between January 2001 and June 2011after a minimum of six months’ enrolment. Main outcomes measures Hypotension requiring admission to hospital. Cox proportional hazards models estimated rate ratios at time varying intervals during follow-up: weeks 1-4, 5-8, and 9-12 after tamsulosin initiation; weeks 1-4, 5-8, and 9-12 after restarting tamsulosin (after a four week gap); and maintenance tamsulosin treatment (remaining exposed person time). Covariates included age, calendar year, demographics, antihypertensive use, healthcare use, and a Charlson comorbidity score. A self controlled case series, having implicit control for time invariant covariates, was additionally conducted. Results Among 383 567 new users of study drugs (tamsulosin 297 596; 5ARI 85 971), 2562 admissions to hospital for severe hypotension were identified. The incidence for hypotension was higher for tamsulosin (42.4 events per 10 000 person years) than for 5ARIs (31.3 events per 10 000 person years) or all accrued person time (29.1 events per 10 000 person years). After tamsulosin initiation, the cohort analysis identified an increased rate of hypotension during weeks 1-4 (rate ratio 2.12 (95% confidence interval 1.29 to 3.04)) and 5-8 (1.51 (1.04 to 2.18)), and no significant increase at weeks 9-12. The rate ratio for hypotension also increased at weeks 1-4 (1.84 (1.46 to 2.33)) and 5-8 (1.85 (1.45 to 2.36)) after restarting tamsulosin, as did maintenance tamsulosin treatment (1.19 (1.07 to 1.32)). The self controlled case series gave similar results as the cohort analysis. Conclusions We observed a temporal association between tamsulosin use for benign prostatic hyperplasia and severe hypotension during the first eight weeks after initiating treatment and the first eight weeks after restarting treatment. This association suggests that physicians should focus on improving counseling strategies to warn patients regarding the “first dose phenomenon” with tamsulosin.
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            The epidemiology of revision total hip arthroplasty in the United States.

            Understanding the causes of failure and the types of revision total hip arthroplasty performed is essential for guiding research, implant design, clinical decision-making, and health-care policy. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the mechanisms of failure and the types of revision total hip arthroplasty procedures performed in the United States with use of newly implemented ICD-9-CM (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification) diagnosis and procedure codes related specifically to revision total hip arthroplasty in a large, nationally representative population. The Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Nationwide Inpatient Sample database was used to analyze clinical, demographic, and economic data from 51,345 revision total hip arthroplasty procedures performed between October 1, 2005, and December 31, 2006. The prevalence of revision procedures was calculated for population subgroups in the United States that were stratified according to age, sex, diagnosis, census region, primary payer class, and type of hospital. The cause of failure, the average length of stay, and total charges were also determined for each type of revision arthroplasty procedure. The most common type of revision total hip arthroplasty procedure performed was all-component revision (41.1%), and the most common causes of revision were instability/dislocation (22.5%), mechanical loosening (19.7%), and infection (14.8%). Revision total hip arthroplasty procedures were most commonly performed in large, urban, nonteaching hospitals for Medicare patients seventy-five to eighty-four years of age. The average length of hospital stay for all types of revision arthroplasties was 6.2 days, and the average total charges were $54,553. However, the average length of stay, average charges, and procedure frequencies varied considerably according to census region, hospital type, and type of revision total hip arthroplasty procedure performed. Hip instability and mechanical loosening are the most common indications for revision total hip arthroplasty in the United States. As further experience is gained with the new diagnosis and procedure codes specifically related to revision total hip arthroplasty, this information will be valuable in directing future research, implant design, and clinical decision-making.
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              The UK General Practice Research Database.

               A Mantgani,  T Walley (1997)
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: postdoctoral research fellow
                Role: lecturer in metabolic bone disease
                Role: senior statistician
                Role: professor of orthopaedics
                Role: professor of orthopaedics
                Role: professor of rheumatology
                Role: professor in rheumatic diseases and consultant rheumatologist
                Journal
                BMJ
                bmj
                BMJ : British Medical Journal
                BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.
                0959-8138
                1468-5833
                2011
                2011
                06 December 2011
                : 343
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Oxford NIHR Musculoskeletal Biomedical Research Unit, Nuffield Department of Orthopaedics, Rheumatology and Musculoskeletal Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7LD, UK
                [2 ]Institut Català de la Salut, Barcelona, Spain
                [3 ]Unitat de Recerca en Fisiopatologia Òssia i Articular (URFOA), Institut Municipal d’Investigació Mèdica (IMIM), Barcelona
                [4 ]Department of Medicine, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona
                [5 ]Primary Care Research Institute, IDIAP (Institut D’Investigació en Atenció Primària) Jordi Gol, Barcelona
                [6 ]MRC Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit, University of Southampton, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton, UK
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: N Arden nigel.arden@ 123456ndorms.ox.ac.uk
                Article
                prid887786
                10.1136/bmj.d7222
                3232250
                22147909
                © Prieto-Alhambra et al 2011

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial License, which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non commercial and is otherwise in compliance with the license. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.0/ and http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.0/legalcode.

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                Categories
                Research
                Epidemiologic Studies
                General Practice / Family Medicine
                Immunology (Including Allergy)
                Connective Tissue Disease
                Degenerative Joint Disease
                Musculoskeletal Syndromes
                Rheumatoid Arthritis
                Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery
                Trauma
                Injury

                Medicine

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