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      Interaction of radio frequency electromagnetic fields and passive metallic implants--a brief review.

      1 , ,

      Bioelectromagnetics

      Wiley

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          Abstract

          During the last decade, use of radio frequency (RF) applications like mobile phones and other wireless devices, has increased remarkably. This has triggered numerous studies related to possible health risks due to the exposure of RF electromagnetic (EM) fields. One safety aspect is the coupling of EM fields with active and passive implants in the human body. While interactions with active implants have been quite extensively researched, only a few studies have focused on passive implants. The present article reviews interaction mechanisms and studies of passive metallic, that is, conductive, implants in common external RF EM fields. It is found that implants have been mostly studied numerically, and experimental studies are rare. Furthermore, the studies cover mostly far-field conditions and only a few have studied implants in near fields. A summary of results indicates that a conductive object in tissues may cause notable local enhancement of the EM field and thus enhanced power absorption. The degree of enhancement depends, for example, on the orientation, the dimensions, the shape, and the location of the implant. However, in most of the cases, the field enhancement has not been strong enough to cause remarkable excess heating (more than 1 degrees C) of tissues.

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          Author and article information

          Affiliations
          [1 ] Department of Applied Physics, University of Kuopio, Kuopio, Finland. hanna.virtanen@uku.fi
          Journal
          Bioelectromagnetics
          Bioelectromagnetics
          Wiley
          0197-8462
          0197-8462
          Sep 2006
          : 27
          : 6
          10.1002/bem.20224
          16622865

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