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      By-passing in vitro screening—next generation sequencing technologies applied to antibody display and in silico candidate selection

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          Abstract

          In recent years, unprecedented DNA sequencing capacity provided by next generation sequencing (NGS) has revolutionized genomic research. Combining the Illumina sequencing platform and a scFv library designed to confine diversity to both CDR3, >1.9 × 10 7 sequences have been generated. This approach allowed for in depth analysis of the library’s diversity, provided sequence information on virtually all scFv during selection for binding to two targets and a global view of these enrichment processes. Using the most frequent heavy chain CDR3 sequences, primers were designed to rescue scFv from the third selection round. Identification, based on sequence frequency, retrieved the most potent scFv and valuable candidates that were missed using classical in vitro screening. Thus, by combining NGS with display technologies, laborious and time consuming upfront screening can be by-passed or complemented and valuable insights into the selection process can be obtained to improve library design and understanding of antibody repertoires.

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          Most cited references34

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          Precise determination of the diversity of a combinatorial antibody library gives insight into the human immunoglobulin repertoire.

          Antibody repertoire diversity, potentially as high as 10(11) unique molecules in a single individual, confounds characterization by conventional sequence analyses. In this study, we present a general method for assessing human antibody sequence diversity displayed on phage using massively parallel pyrosequencing, a novel application of Kabat column-labeled profile Hidden Markov Models, and translated complementarity determining region (CDR) capture-recapture analysis. Pyrosequencing of domain amplicon and RCA PCR products generated 1.5 x 10(6) reads, including more than 1.9 x 10(5) high quality, full-length sequences of antibody variable fragment (Fv) variable domains. Novel methods for germline and CDR classification and fine characterization of sequence diversity in the 6 CDRs are presented. Diverse germline contributions to the repertoire with random heavy and light chain pairing are observed. All germline families were found to be represented in 1.7 x 10(4) sequences obtained from repeated panning of the library. While the most variable CDR (CDR-H3) presents significant length and sequence variability, we find a substantial contribution to total diversity from somatically mutated germline encoded CDRs 1 and 2. Using a capture-recapture method, the total diversity of the antibody library obtained from a human donor Immunoglobulin M (IgM) pool was determined to be at least 3.5 x 10(10). The results provide insights into the role of IgM diversification, display library construction, and productive germline usages in antibody libraries and the humoral repertoire.
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            Engineering novel binding proteins from nonimmunoglobulin domains.

            Not all adaptive immune systems use the immunoglobulin fold as the basis for specific recognition molecules: sea lampreys, for example, have evolved an adaptive immune system that is based on leucine-rich repeat proteins. Additionally, many other proteins, not necessarily involved in adaptive immunity, mediate specific high-affinity interactions. Such alternatives to immunoglobulins represent attractive starting points for the design of novel binding molecules for research and clinical applications. Indeed, through progress and increased experience in library design and selection technologies, gained not least from working with synthetic antibody libraries, researchers have now exploited many of these novel scaffolds as tailor-made affinity reagents. Significant progress has been made not only in the basic science of generating specific binding molecules, but also in applications of the selected binders in laboratory procedures, proteomics, diagnostics and therapy. Challenges ahead include identifying applications where these novel proteins can not only be an alternative, but can enable approaches so far deemed technically impossible, and delineate those therapeutic applications commensurate with the molecular properties of the respective proteins.
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              Next-generation DNA sequencing of paired-end tags (PET) for transcriptome and genome analyses.

              Comprehensive understanding of functional elements in the human genome will require thorough interrogation and comparison of individual human genomes and genomic structures. Such an endeavor will require improvements in the throughputs and costs of DNA sequencing. Next-generation sequencing platforms have impressively low costs and high throughputs but are limited by short read lengths. An immediate and widely recognized solution to this critical limitation is the paired-end tag (PET) sequencing for various applications, collectively called the PET sequencing strategy, in which short and paired tags are extracted from the ends of long DNA fragments for ultra-high-throughput sequencing. The PET sequences can be accurately mapped to the reference genome, thus demarcating the genomic boundaries of PET-represented DNA fragments and revealing the identities of the target DNA elements. PET protocols have been developed for the analyses of transcriptomes, transcription factor binding sites, epigenetic sites such as histone modification sites, and genome structures. The exclusive advantage of the PET technology is its ability to uncover linkages between the two ends of DNA fragments. Using this unique feature, unconventional fusion transcripts, genome structural variations, and even molecular interactions between distant genomic elements can be unraveled by PET analysis. Extensive use of PET data could lead to efficient assembly of individual human genomes, transcriptomes, and interactomes, enabling new biological and clinical insights. With its versatile and powerful nature for DNA analysis, the PET sequencing strategy has a bright future ahead.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nucleic Acids Res
                nar
                nar
                Nucleic Acids Research
                Oxford University Press
                0305-1048
                1362-4962
                November 2010
                November 2010
                15 September 2010
                15 September 2010
                : 38
                : 21
                : e193
                Affiliations
                1NovImmune SA, Ch. des Aulx 14 and 2Fasteris SA, Ch. du Pont-du-Centenaire 109, 1228 Plan-les-Ouates, Switzerland
                Author notes
                *To whom correspondence should be addressed. Tel: +41 22 5935184; Fax: +41 22 8397154; Email: nfischer@ 123456novimmune.com

                The authors wish it to be known that, in their opinion, the first two authors should be regarded as joint First Authors.

                Article
                gkq789
                10.1093/nar/gkq789
                2995085
                20846958
                05815d2c-caac-4b54-b386-52677d14ffb3
                © The Author(s) 2010. Published by Oxford University Press.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.5), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Methods Online

                Genetics
                Genetics

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