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      Conformal Arc Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer: Increased Biochemical Failure in Patients With Distended Rectum on the Planning Computed Tomogram Despite Image Guidance by Implanted Markers

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      International Journal of Radiation Oncology*Biology*Physics

      Elsevier BV

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          To evaluate the effect of rectal distention on the planning computed tomogram on freedom from biochemical failure (FFBF) of prostate cancer patients treated with image-guided conformal arc radiotherapy. The outcomes of 238 patients with T1-T3N0M0 tumors were analyzed, with a median follow-up of 53 months (range, 24-93 months). In 213 patients, daily co-registration of X-rays and digitally reconstructed radiographs was used for positioning, whereas in 25 patients positioning was done using direct prostate visualization with implanted markers. The rectal average cross-sectional area was determined on the planning computed tomogram. The 5-year freedom from Grade 3 to 4 late gastrointestinal and urinary side effect, according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria, was 100% and 99.4% respectively. The 5-year FFBF was 88.4%. On multivariate analysis the following variables were significantly related to worse FFBF: risk group according to the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (high- to very high risk vs. intermediate- to low-risk), dose (70 vs. 78 Gy), average cross-sectional area (> or =16 vs. <16 cm(2)) and, unexpectedly, the use of implanted markers as opposed to bony structures for patient positioning. In retrospect, the margins around the clinical target volume appeared to be inadequate in the cases in which markers were used. Overall, the outcome of patients treated with image-guided conformal arc radiotherapy is excellent. We were able to confirm the negative prognostic impact of a distended rectum on the planning computed tomogram described by others. The study illustrates the potential danger of image guidance techniques as to margin reduction around the clinical target volume.

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          International Journal of Radiation Oncology*Biology*Physics
          International Journal of Radiation Oncology*Biology*Physics
          Elsevier BV
          June 2009
          June 2009
          : 74
          : 2
          : 388-391
          © 2009


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