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      Acquiring a four-dimensional computed tomography dataset using an external respiratory signal.

      Physics in medicine and biology

      physiology, Algorithms, Artifacts, Humans, Imaging, Three-Dimensional, instrumentation, methods, Lung Neoplasms, radiography, Movement, Phantoms, Imaging, Quality Control, Radiographic Image Enhancement, Respiratory Mechanics, Sample Size, Subtraction Technique, Thermography, Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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          Abstract

          Four-dimensional (4D) methods strive to achieve highly conformal radiotherapy, particularly for lung and breast tumours, in the presence of respiratory-induced motion of tumours and normal tissues. Four-dimensional radiotherapy accounts for respiratory motion during imaging, planning and radiation delivery, and requires a 4D CT image in which the internal anatomy motion as a function of the respiratory cycle can be quantified. The aims of our research were (a) to develop a method to acquire 4D CT images from a spiral CT scan using an external respiratory signal and (b) to examine the potential utility of 4D CT imaging. A commercially available respiratory motion monitoring system provided an 'external' tracking signal of the patient's breathing. Simultaneous recording of a TTL 'X-Ray ON' signal from the CT scanner indicated the start time of CT image acquisition, thus facilitating time stamping of all subsequent images. An over-sampled spiral CT scan was acquired using a pitch of 0.5 and scanner rotation time of 1.5 s. Each image from such a scan was sorted into an image bin that corresponded with the phase of the respiratory cycle in which the image was acquired. The complete set of such image bins accumulated over a respiratory cycle constitutes a 4D CT dataset. Four-dimensional CT datasets of a mechanical oscillator phantom and a patient undergoing lung radiotherapy were acquired. Motion artefacts were significantly reduced in the images in the 4D CT dataset compared to the three-dimensional (3D) images, for which respiratory motion was not accounted. Accounting for respiratory motion using 4D CT imaging is feasible and yields images with less distortion than 3D images. 4D images also contain respiratory motion information not available in a 3D CT image.

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          Most cited references 26

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          Organ motion and its management.

          To compile and review data on the topic of organ motion and its management. Data were classified into three categories: (a) patient position-related organ motion, (b) interfraction organ motion, and (c) intrafraction organ motion. Data on interfraction motion of gynecological tumors, the prostate, bladder, and rectum are reviewed. Literature pertaining to the intrafraction movement of the liver, diaphragm, kidneys, pancreas, lung tumors, and prostate is compiled. Methods for managing interfraction and intrafraction organ motion in radiation therapy are also reviewed.
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            Volumetric transformation of brain anatomy.

            This paper presents diffeomorphic transformations of three-dimensional (3-D) anatomical image data of the macaque occipital lobe and whole brain cryosection imagery and of deep brain structures in human brains as imaged via magnetic resonance imagery. These transformations are generated in a hierarchical manner, accommodating both global and local anatomical detail. The initial low-dimensional registration is accomplished by constraining the transformation to be in a low-dimensional basis. The basis is defined by the Green's function of the elasticity operator placed at predefined locations in the anatomy and the eigenfunctions of the elasticity operator. The high-dimensional large deformations are vector fields generated via the mismatch between the template and target-image volumes constrained to be the solution of a Navier-Stokes fluid model. As part of this procedure, the Jacobian of the transformation is tracked, insuring the generation of diffeomorphisms. It is shown that transformations constrained by quadratic regularization methods such as the Laplacian, biharmonic, and linear elasticity models, do not ensure that the transformation maintains topology and, therefore, must only be used for coarse global registration.
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              3D brain mapping using a deformable neuroanatomy.

              This paper presents two different mathematical methods that can be used separately or in conjunction to accommodate shape variabilities between normal human neuroanatomies. Both methods use a digitized textbook to represent the complex structure of a typical normal neuroanatomy. Probabilistic transformations on the textbook coordinate system are defined to accommodate shape differences between the textbook and images of other normal neuroanatomies. The transformations are constrained to be consistent with the physical properties of deformable elastic solids in the first method and those of viscous fluids in the second. Results presented in this paper demonstrate how a single deformable textbook can be used to accommodate normal shape variability.
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                Journal
                12564500

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