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      Familial Hyperparathyroidism

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          Regulation of the serum calcium level in humans is achieved by the endocrine action of parathyroid glands working in concert with vitamin D and a set of critical target cells and tissues including osteoblasts, osteoclasts, the renal tubules, and the small intestine. The parathyroid glands, small highly vascularized endocrine organs located behind the thyroid gland, secrete parathyroid hormone (PTH) into the systemic circulation as is needed to keep the serum free calcium concentration within a tight physiologic range. Primary hyperparathyroidism (HPT), a disorder of mineral metabolism usually associated with abnormally elevated serum calcium, results from the uncontrolled release of PTH from one or several abnormal parathyroid glands. Although in the vast majority of cases HPT is a sporadic disease, it can also present as a manifestation of a familial syndrome. Many benign and malignant sporadic parathyroid neoplasms are caused by loss-of-function mutations in tumor suppressor genes that were initially identified by the study of genomic DNA from patients who developed HPT as a manifestation of an inherited syndrome. Somatic and inherited mutations in certain proto-oncogenes can also result in the development of parathyroid tumors. The clinical and genetic investigation of familial HPT in kindreds found to lack germline variants in the already known HPT-predisposition genes represents a promising future direction for the discovery of novel genes relevant to parathyroid tumor development.

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          Guidelines for diagnosis and therapy of MEN type 1 and type 2.

          This is a consensus statement from an international group, mostly of clinical endocrinologists. MEN1 and MEN2 are hereditary cancer syndromes. The commonest tumors secrete PTH or gastrin in MEN1, and calcitonin or catecholamines in MEN2. Management strategies improved after the discoveries of their genes. MEN1 has no clear syndromic variants. Tumor monitoring in MEN1 carriers includes biochemical tests yearly and imaging tests less often. Neck surgery includes subtotal or total parathyroidectomy, parathyroid cryopreservation, and thymectomy. Proton pump inhibitors or somatostatin analogs are the main management for oversecretion of entero-pancreatic hormones, except insulin. The roles for surgery of most entero-pancreatic tumors present several controversies: exclusion of most operations on gastrinomas and indications for surgery on other tumors. Each MEN1 family probably has an inactivating MEN1 germline mutation. Testing for a germline MEN1 mutation gives useful information, but rarely mandates an intervention. The most distinctive MEN2 variants are MEN2A, MEN2B, and familial medullary thyroid cancer (MTC). They vary in aggressiveness of MTC and spectrum of disturbed organs. Mortality in MEN2 is greater from MTC than from pheochromocytoma. Thyroidectomy, during childhood if possible, is the goal in all MEN2 carriers to prevent or cure MTC. Each MEN2 index case probably has an activating germline RET mutation. RET testing has replaced calcitonin testing to diagnose the MEN2 carrier state. The specific RET codon mutation correlates with the MEN2 syndromic variant, the age of onset of MTC, and the aggressiveness of MTC; consequently, that mutation should guide major management decisions, such as whether and when to perform thyroidectomy.
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            HRPT2, encoding parafibromin, is mutated in hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome.

            We report here the identification of a gene associated with the hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor (HPT-JT) syndrome. A single locus associated with HPT-JT (HRPT2) was previously mapped to chromosomal region 1q25-q32. We refined this region to a critical interval of 12 cM by genotyping in 26 affected kindreds. Using a positional candidate approach, we identified thirteen different heterozygous, germline, inactivating mutations in a single gene in fourteen families with HPT-JT. The proposed role of HRPT2 as a tumor suppressor was supported by mutation screening in 48 parathyroid adenomas with cystic features, which identified three somatic inactivating mutations, all located in exon 1. None of these mutations were detected in normal controls, and all were predicted to cause deficient or impaired protein function. HRPT2 is a ubiquitously expressed, evolutionarily conserved gene encoding a predicted protein of 531 amino acids, for which we propose the name parafibromin. Our findings suggest that HRPT2 is a tumor-suppressor gene, the inactivation of which is directly involved in predisposition to HPT-JT and in development of some sporadic parathyroid tumors.
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              Mutation and Cancer: Statistical Study of Retinoblastoma

               A Knudson (1971)

                Author and article information

                Front Endocrinol (Lausanne)
                Front Endocrinol (Lausanne)
                Front. Endocrinol.
                Frontiers in Endocrinology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                25 February 2021
                : 12
                1 Early Clinical Development, Cardiovascular, Renal and Metabolism, BioPharmaceuticals R&D, AstraZeneca , Gaithersburg, MD, United States
                2 Metabolic Diseases Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health , Bethesda, MD, United States
                Author notes

                Edited by: Naris Nilubol, National Institutes of Health (NIH), United States

                Reviewed by: Daniela Pasquali, University of Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, Italy; Sabrina Corbetta, University of Milan, Italy

                *Correspondence: William F. Simonds, bills@ 123456niddk.nih.gov

                This article was submitted to Cancer Endocrinology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Endocrinology

                Copyright © 2021 Blau and Simonds

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 153, Pages: 14, Words: 7265
                Funded by: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases 10.13039/100000062


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