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      Aspirin monotherapy in the treatment of distal intracranial aneurysms with a surface modified flow diverter: a pilot study

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          Abstract

          Background

          Flow diverters (FDs) result in high occlusion rates of aneurysms located distally to the carotid artery. However, the complications reported are not negligible. New modified surface FDs have low thrombogenic properties that may reduce ischemic complications related to the treatment. In addition, a modified surface FD may allow for the use of a single antiplatelet medication to reduce hemorrhagic risk during the procedure. The aim of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of the p48 MW HPC (phenox, Bochum, Germany) to treat distal intracranial aneurysms under the use of aspirin monotherapy.

          Methods

          The primary endpoint was the incidence of any neurologic deficit after treatment after 6 months of follow-up. The secondary endpoint was the rate of the complete occlusion of the aneurysms at the 6-month follow-up. Enrollment of 20 patients was planned, but after inclusion of seven patients the study was stopped due to safety issues.

          Results

          Seven patients with eight aneurysms were included. Among the seven patients, three (42.8%) had ischemic complications on the second day after FD deployment. Two patients experienced complete recovery at discharge (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score=0), while one patient maintained mild dysarthria at discharge (NIHSS score=1) which improved after 6 months (NIHSS score=0). All three patients had no new symptoms during the 6-month follow-up. Complete aneurysm occlusion occurred in six (75%) of the eight aneurysms at the 6-month follow-up.

          Conclusions

          Antiplatelet monotherapy with aspirin for the treatment of distal intracranial aneurysms with this modified surface FD resulted in a significant incidence of ischemic complications after treatment.

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          Most cited references 30

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          Platelet-active drugs: the relationships among dose, effectiveness, and side effects: the Seventh ACCP Conference on Antithrombotic and Thrombolytic Therapy.

          This article discusses platelet active drugs as part of the Seventh American College of Chest Physicians Conference on Antithrombotic and Thrombolytic Therapy: Evidence-Based Guidelines. New data on antiplatelet agents include the following: (1) the role of aspirin in primary prevention has been the subject of recommendations based on the assessment of cardiovascular risk; (2) an increasing number of reports suggest a substantial interindividual variability in the response to antiplatelet agents, and various phenomena of "resistance" to the antiplatelet effects of aspirin and clopidogrel; (3) the benefit/risk profile of currently available glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonists is substantially uncertain for patients with acute coronary syndromes who are not routinely scheduled for early revascularization; (4) there is an expanding role for the combination of aspirin and clopidogrel in the long-term management of high-risk patients; and (5) the cardiovascular effects of selective and nonselective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors have been the subject of increasing attention.
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            Evaluation of dose-related effects of aspirin on platelet function: results from the Aspirin-Induced Platelet Effect (ASPECT) study.

            The antiplatelet effect of aspirin is attributed to platelet cyclooxygenase-1 inhibition. Controversy exists on the prevalence of platelet resistance to aspirin in patients with coronary artery disease and effects of aspirin dose on inhibition. Our primary aim was to determine the degree of platelet aspirin responsiveness in patients, as measured by commonly used methods, and to study the relation of aspirin dose to platelet inhibition. We prospectively studied the effect of aspirin dosing on platelet function in 125 stable outpatients with coronary artery disease randomized in a double-blind, double-crossover investigation (81, 162, and 325 mg/d for 4 weeks each over a 12-week period). At all doses of aspirin, platelet function was low as indicated by arachidonic acid (AA)-induced light transmittance aggregation, thrombelastography, and VerifyNow. At any 1 dose, resistance to aspirin was 0% to 6% in the overall group when AA was used as the agonist, whereas it was 1% to 27% by other methods [collagen and ADP-induced light transmittance aggregation, platelet function analyzer (PFA-100)]. Platelet response to aspirin as measured by collagen-induced light transmittance aggregation, ADP-induced light transmittance aggregation, PFA-100 (81 mg versus 162 mg, P < or = 0.05), and urinary 11-dehydrothromboxane B2 was dose-related (81 mg versus 325 mg, P = 0.003). No carryover effects were observed. The assessment of aspirin resistance is highly assay-dependent; aspirin is an effective blocker of AA-induced platelet function at all doses, whereas higher estimates of resistance were observed with methods that do not use AA as the stimulus. The observation of dose-dependent effects despite nearly complete inhibition of AA-induced aggregation suggests that aspirin may exert antiplatelet properties through non-cyclooxygenase-1 pathways and deserves further investigation.
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              Flow diverters at and beyond the level of the circle of willis for the treatment of intracranial aneurysms.

              Flow Diverters (FD) are a new emerging therapy for intracranial aneurysms. Initial reports focused on the treatment of proximally located aneurysms. We report our experience with FDs in the treatment of aneurysms at and beyond the circle of Willis. We treated 30 aneurysms at and beyond the circle of Willis with FDs (silk and pipeline). Aneurysms were treated with FDs alone in 73.3% (22/30) and with FDs and coils in 23.3% (7/30). One procedure was converted in parent vessel occlusion. Thirty aneurysms (21/30, 70.0% saccular; 7/30, 23.3% fusiform; 2/30, 6.7% blister-like; sizes 1.2-19.6, mean 6.8 mm) were treated in 26 patients (17 women, 9 men; mean age, 49 years) during 27 procedures. Access site complication was noted in 3.7% (1/27). Reversible neurological complications were noted in 7.4% (2/27), permanent neurological complication in 3.7% (1/27). There was no mortality. No aneurysms bled or rebled after treatment. Aneurysms treated with FDs alone were significantly smaller than those treated with FDs and coils (5.7 and 10.0 mm, respectively; P=0.0174). Immediate angiographic occlusion was achieved in 18.2% (4/22) with FDs alone, in 0.0% (0/7) with FDs and coils. Twenty-four aneurysms (80.0%) had been followed (mean, 13 months). Fifteen of 19 aneurysms (78.9%) treated with FDs against 4 of 4 of aneurysms (100%) treated with FDs and coils were occluded. There was no angiographic recurrence of initially totally occluded aneurysms. Aneurysms at and beyond the circle of Willis are amenable to selective treatment with FDs.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
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                Journal
                Journal of NeuroInterventional Surgery
                J NeuroIntervent Surg
                BMJ
                1759-8478
                1759-8486
                March 15 2021
                April 2021
                April 2021
                January 29 2021
                : 13
                : 4
                : 336-341
                Article
                10.1136/neurintsurg-2020-017024
                05abdf2d-9fc7-44f5-b403-09358b789729
                © 2021

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