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      Increased dosage of a sir-2 gene extends lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans.

      Nature

      metabolism, Transcription Factors, physiology, genetics, Trans-Activators, Sirtuins, Sirtuin 2, Silent Information Regulator Proteins, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Signal Transduction, Male, Longevity, Histone Deacetylases, Helminth Proteins, Genes, Fungal, Gene Duplication, Gene Dosage, Female, Chromosome Mapping, Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins, Caenorhabditis elegans, Animals, Genetically Modified, Animals

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          Abstract

          In Caenorhabditis elegans, mutations that reduce the activity of an insulin-like receptor (daf-2) or a phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase (age-1) favour entry into the dauer state during larval development and extend lifespan in adults. Downregulation of this pathway activates a forkhead transcription factor (daf-16), which may regulate targets that promote dauer formation in larvae and stress resistance and longevity in adults. In yeast, the SIR2 gene determines the lifespan of mother cells, and adding an extra copy of SIR2 extends lifespan. Sir2 mediates chromatin silencing through a histone deacetylase activity that depends on NAD (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) as a cofactor. We have surveyed the lifespan of C. elegans strains containing duplications of chromosomal regions. Here we report that a duplication containing sir-2.1-the C. elegans gene most homologous to yeast SIR2-confers a lifespan that is extended by up to 50%. Genetic analysis indicates that the sir-2.1 transgene functions upstream of daf-16 in the insulin-like signalling pathway. Our findings suggest that Sir2 proteins may couple longevity to nutrient availability in many eukaryotic organisms.

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          Most cited references 17

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          A C. elegans mutant that lives twice as long as wild type.

          We have found that mutations in the gene daf-2 can cause fertile, active, adult Caenorhabditis elegans hermaphrodites to live more than twice as long as wild type. This lifespan extension, the largest yet reported in any organism, requires the activity of a second gene, daf-16. Both genes also regulate formation of the dauer larva, a developmentally arrested larval form that is induced by crowding and starvation and is very long-lived. Our findings raise the possibility that the longevity of the dauer is not simply a consequence of its arrested growth, but instead results from a regulated lifespan extension mechanism that can be uncoupled from other aspects of dauer formation. daf-2 and daf-16 provide entry points into understanding how lifespan can be extended.
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            Transcriptional silencing and longevity protein Sir2 is an NAD-dependent histone deacetylase.

            Yeast Sir2 is a heterochromatin component that silences transcription at silent mating loci, telomeres and the ribosomal DNA, and that also suppresses recombination in the rDNA and extends replicative life span. Mutational studies indicate that lysine 16 in the amino-terminal tail of histone H4 and lysines 9, 14 and 18 in H3 are critically important in silencing, whereas lysines 5, 8 and 12 of H4 have more redundant functions. Lysines 9 and 14 of histone H3 and lysines 5, 8 and 16 of H4 are acetylated in active chromatin and hypoacetylated in silenced chromatin, and overexpression of Sir2 promotes global deacetylation of histones, indicating that Sir2 may be a histone deacetylase. Deacetylation of lysine 16 of H4 is necessary for binding the silencing protein, Sir3. Here we show that yeast and mouse Sir2 proteins are nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent histone deacetylases, which deacetylate lysines 9 and 14 of H3 and specifically lysine 16 of H4. Our analysis of two SIR2 mutations supports the idea that this deacetylase activity accounts for silencing, recombination suppression and extension of life span in vivo. These findings provide a molecular framework of NAD-dependent histone deacetylation that connects metabolism, genomic silencing and ageing in yeast and, perhaps, in higher eukaryotes.
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              The SIR2/3/4 complex and SIR2 alone promote longevity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by two different mechanisms.

              The SIR genes are determinants of life span in yeast mother cells. Here we show that life span regulation by the Sir proteins is independent of their role in nonhomologous end joining. The short life span of a sir3 or sir4 mutant is due to the simultaneous expression of a and alpha mating-type information, which indirectly causes an increase in rDNA recombination and likely increases the production of extrachromosomal rDNA circles. The short life span of a sir2 mutant also reveals a direct failure to repress recombination generated by the Fob1p-mediated replication block in the rDNA. Sir2p is a limiting component in promoting yeast longevity, and increasing the gene dosage extends the life span in wild-type cells. A possible role of the conserved SIR2 in mammalian aging is discussed.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                11242085
                10.1038/35065638

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