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      PRR11 induces filopodia formation and promotes cell motility via recruiting ARP2/3 complex in non-small cell lung cancer cells


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          Filopodia, a finger-like structure and actin-rich plasma-membrane protrusion at the leading edge of the cell, has important roles in cell motility. However, the mechanisms of filopodia generation are not well-understood via the actin-related protein 2/3 (ARP2/3) complex in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) cells. We previously have demonstrated that PRR11 associates with the ARP2/3 complex to regulate cytoskeleton-nucleoskeleton assembly and chromatin remodeling. In this study, we further demonstrate that PRR11 involves in filopodia formation, focal adhesion turnover and cell motility through ARP2/3 complex. Cell phenotype assays revealed that the silencing of PRR11 increased cellular size and inhibited cell motility in NSCLC cells. Mechanistically, PRR11 recruited and co-localized with Arp2 at the membrane protrusion to promote filopodia formation but not lamellipodia formation. Notably, PRR11 mutant deletion of the proline-rich region 2 (amino acid residues 185–200) abrogated the effect of filopodia formation. In addition, PRR11-depletion inhibited filopodial actin filaments assembly and increased the level of active integrin β1 in the cell surface, whereas reduced the phosphorylation level of focal adhesion kinase (FAK Y397) to repress focal adhesion turnover and cell motility in NSCLC cells. Taken together, our findings indicate that PRR11 has critical roles in controlling filopodia formation, focal adhesion turnover and cell motility by recruiting ARP2/3 complex, thus dysregualted expression of PRR11 potentially facilitates tumor metastasis in NSCLC cells.

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          Each year, the American Cancer Society estimates the numbers of new cancer cases and deaths that will occur in the United States and compiles the most recent data on cancer incidence, mortality, and survival. Incidence data, available through 2014, were collected by the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program; the National Program of Cancer Registries; and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries. Mortality data, available through 2015, were collected by the National Center for Health Statistics. In 2018, 1,735,350 new cancer cases and 609,640 cancer deaths are projected to occur in the United States. Over the past decade of data, the cancer incidence rate (2005-2014) was stable in women and declined by approximately 2% annually in men, while the cancer death rate (2006-2015) declined by about 1.5% annually in both men and women. The combined cancer death rate dropped continuously from 1991 to 2015 by a total of 26%, translating to approximately 2,378,600 fewer cancer deaths than would have been expected if death rates had remained at their peak. Of the 10 leading causes of death, only cancer declined from 2014 to 2015. In 2015, the cancer death rate was 14% higher in non-Hispanic blacks (NHBs) than non-Hispanic whites (NHWs) overall (death rate ratio [DRR], 1.14; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.13-1.15), but the racial disparity was much larger for individuals aged <65 years (DRR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.29-1.32) compared with those aged ≥65 years (DRR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.06-1.09) and varied substantially by state. For example, the cancer death rate was lower in NHBs than NHWs in Massachusetts for all ages and in New York for individuals aged ≥65 years, whereas for those aged <65 years, it was 3 times higher in NHBs in the District of Columbia (DRR, 2.89; 95% CI, 2.16-3.91) and about 50% higher in Wisconsin (DRR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.56-2.02), Kansas (DRR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.25-1.81), Louisiana (DRR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.38-1.60), Illinois (DRR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.39-1.57), and California (DRR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.38-1.54). Larger racial inequalities in young and middle-aged adults probably partly reflect less access to high-quality health care. CA Cancer J Clin 2018;68:7-30. © 2018 American Cancer Society.
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              Life at the leading edge.

              Cell migration requires sustained forward movement of the plasma membrane at the cell's front or "leading edge." To date, researchers have uncovered four distinct ways of extending the membrane at the leading edge. In lamellipodia and filopodia, actin polymerization directly pushes the plasma membrane forward, whereas in invadopodia, actin polymerization couples with the extracellular delivery of matrix-degrading metalloproteases to clear a path for cells through the extracellular matrix. Membrane blebs drive the plasma membrane forward using a combination of actomyosin-based contractility and reversible detachment of the membrane from the cortical actin cytoskeleton. Each protrusion type requires the coordination of a wide spectrum of signaling molecules and regulators of cytoskeletal dynamics. In addition, these different protrusion methods likely act in concert to move cells through complex environments in vivo. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

                Author and article information

                Genes Dis
                Genes Dis
                Genes & Diseases
                Chongqing Medical University
                02 March 2021
                January 2022
                02 March 2021
                : 9
                : 1
                : 230-244
                [a ]Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, PR China
                [b ]Molecular Medicine and Cancer Research Center, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, PR China
                [c ]Guangdong Provincial People’s Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510080, PR China
                Author notes
                []Corresponding author. Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Chongqing Medical University, 1# Yixueyuan Road, Yuzhong District, Chongqing 400016, PR China. zhangcd@ 123456cqmu.edu.cn
                © 2021 Chongqing Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V.

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

                : 27 September 2020
                : 25 January 2021
                : 21 February 2021
                Full Length Article

                arp2/3 complex,cell motility,fak,filopodia,focal adhesion,integrin,nsclc cells,prr11


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