In chronic renal failure patients a state of immunodeficiency paradoxically coexists with the activation of immune effector cells, including monocytes and lymphocytes. The activation of these cells leads to the release of cytokines. The aim of this study was to estimate the serum concentrations of IL-2, IL-6, TNF-α and their soluble receptors: IL-2 sRα, IL-6 sR, sTNF RI in children with chronic renal failure and young adults on maintenance hemodialysis (HD). The study included 16 HD patients (11 females, 5 males) aged 11–22 (mean 16.1 ± 3.1) years and a control group of 15 age-matched healthy children. Only the mean concentration of IL-6 was similar in HD patients and the control group. The levels of the other cytokines were significantly higher in patients undergoing HD compared to the healthy subjects. No significant differences were observed between the pre- and post-dialysis values or between the values obtained using various dialyzer membranes. These data suggest that immune cells in HD children are in an activated state and that neither a single dialysis session nor the type of dialyzer membrane has an influence on the cytokines examined.