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      The Impact of Body Mass Index on the Thrombolytic Treatment of Acute Ischemic Stroke

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          Abstract

          Background: Body weight and body mass index (BMI) are regularly assessed factors in stroke patients for manifold reasons. However, their potential role specifically in intravenous thrombolysis has not been thoroughly examined. Methods: Data from 865 consecutive acute ischemic stroke patients treated with intravenous thrombolysis were analyzed. Patients were divided into different BMI categories (underweight, normal weight, overweight, obese) and compared based on the following factors: time window of treatment, clinical scores National Institute of Health Stroke Scale Score (NIHSS), modified Rankin scale (mRS) on admission and discharge, risk factors, stroke characteristics and thrombolysis complications. Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) doses relative to body weight and blood volume were also assessed. In a separate analysis, patients weighing up to 100 and >100 kg were compared. Results: Eighteen patients (2.1%) were underweight, 336 (38.8%) overweight, 194 (22.4%) obese and 317 (36.7%) had normal weight. Higher BMI category was associated with younger age, thrombolytic treatment later than 4.5 h, arterial hypertension, diabetes and higher relative rtPA dose relative to blood volume (p < 0.001). There were no significant differences concerning NIHSS and mRS scores or thrombolysis complications. Forty-six patients (5.3%) weighed over 100 kg. They were younger (p = 0.002) and treated later than patients under 100 kg (p < 0.001). Mean rtPA dose relative to body weight and to blood volume was significantly lower (0.7 vs. 0.9 mg/kg, p < 0.001 and 13 vs. 13.9 mg/l, p < 0.001). There was a marginal difference in NIHSS score improvement ≥4 points (26.1 vs. 40.2%, p = 0.038); otherwise, no outcome differences were found. Conclusion: BMI category does not significantly influence clinical outcome after thrombolysis. However, relevant NIHSS improvement was found more often in patients weighing up to 100 kg compared to those over 100 kg. Interestingly, patients with higher BMI or weight >100 kg were thrombolysed later than other patients.

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          Most cited references 14

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          The impact of body mass index on mortality after stroke.

          Little is known about the contribution of obesity to the higher mortality risk among stroke survivors. We assessed the independent association between body mass index (BMI) and mortality among stroke survivors. Cross-sectional and prospective data from a nationally representative survey of noninstitutionalized civilian U.S. population aged 25 or older (n=20 050) with a baseline history of stroke (n=644) followed up from survey participation (1988-1994) through mortality assessment in 2000. Relationships between BMI and mortality attributable to all causes or cardiovascular causes were examined after adjusting for established prognosticators after stroke. Stroke survivors were more likely to be overweight (BMI 25 to 29 kg/m2) or obese (BMI > or =30 kg/m2 than those without stroke (64.3% versus 53.2%, P=0.003). In multivariable analysis, overall risk for all-cause mortality increased per kg/m2 of higher BMI (P=0.030), but an interaction between age and BMI (P=0.009) revealed that the association of higher BMI with mortality risk was strongest in younger individuals and declined linearly with increasing age, such that in the elderly, overweightness and obesity had a protective effect. The results were similar for the cardiovascular mortality outcome. Higher BMI after stroke is associated with a greater risk of all-cause and cardiovascular death among younger individuals. Younger stroke survivors may especially benefit from more vigorous efforts to monitor and treat obesity.
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            Reducing prehospital delay in acute stroke.

            Despite the proven benefits of thrombolysis for patients presenting with acute ischemic stroke, only a limited number of patients receive thrombolytic therapy. The reason for the low treatment rate is that thrombolysis is only effective a few hours after the onset of ischemic stroke, so delays in patients being admitted to hospital and being diagnosed mean that the therapeutic window is often missed. Major factors that lead to prehospital delay include the general public's lack of knowledge of stroke symptoms and their poor understanding of the appropriate course of action following a stroke. Indeed, the patients who arrive early in hospital tend to be those who recognize the symptoms of stroke and take them seriously. Deficiencies in the identification of stroke by emergency medical services and general practitioners also contribute to prehospital delay. Aggressive, combined educational programs aimed at the general public, general practitioners, and medical and paramedical hospital staff can lead to increased stroke treatment rates. In this Review, we explore the extent of prehospital delay in stroke, identify the factors that affect the time taken for patients to reach hospital, and describe strategies designed to reduce the delay.
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              Stroke, obesity and gender: a review of the literature.

              Cerebrovascular disease constitutes one of the main causes of morbidity, disability and mortality worldwide. Obesity, a major health problem reaching global epidemic proportions, is also associated with morbidity and mortality. The present review provides an update on the current knowledge regarding the association of gender and obesity with stroke prevalence and outcome. We also discuss the areas that future research needs to point towards. In general, gender differences in relation to stroke are increasingly being recognized and evaluated. Age-specific stroke incidence is generally higher in men, except in the elderly. Women are treated less frequently with intravenous thrombolysis compared with men stroke patients and the two genders seem to respond differently to aspirin and statins. Regarding obesity, although it is a well-known predictor of cardiovascular disease, there is a growing body of evidence revealing the presence of an inverse relationship between obesity and outcome in patients with stroke or established cardiovascular disease, the so-called obesity paradox. Further research is warranted on these important topics, as human population is continuously aging and becoming more obese. In this context, the causes of gender differences in stroke prevalence and outcome and the obesity-stroke paradox should be further investigated in future studies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CED
                Cerebrovasc Dis
                10.1159/issn.1015-9770
                Cerebrovascular Diseases
                Cerebrovasc Dis
                S. Karger AG (Basel, Switzerland karger@ 123456karger.com http://www.karger.com )
                1015-9770
                1421-9786
                July 2016
                14 May 2016
                : 42
                : 3-4
                : 240-246
                Affiliations
                Department of Neurology, Universitaetsmedizin Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim, Germany
                Article
                CED20160423-4240 Cerebrovasc Dis 2016;42:240-246
                10.1159/000446005
                27173490
                © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Tables: 3, References: 24, Pages: 7
                Categories
                Original Paper

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