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      Serotonin receptor modulators in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome

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          Abstract

          The aim of this article is to review the pathophysiology and clinical role of serotonin receptor modulators used in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Serotonin is an important monoamine neurotransmitter that plays a key role in the initiation of peristaltic and secretory refl exes, and in modulation of visceral sensations. Several serotonin receptor subtypes have been characterized, of which 5HT3, 5HT4, and 5HT1b are the most important for GI function. 5HT4 agonists (eg, tegaserod) potentiate peristalsis initiated by 5HT1 receptor stimulation. 5HT4 agonists are therefore useful in constipation predominant form of IBS and in chronic constipation. 5HT3 antagonists (Alosetron and Cilansetron) prevent the activation of 5HT3 receptors on extrinsic afferent neurons and can decrease the visceral pain associated with IBS. These agents also retard small intestinal and colonic transit, and are therefore useful in diarrhea-predominant IBS. Tegaserod has been demonstrated in several randomized, placebo controlled trials to relieve global IBS symptoms as well as individual symptoms of abdominal discomfort, number of bowel movements and stool consistency. Several randomized, controlled trials have shown that alosetron relieves pain, improves bowel function, and provides global symptom improvement in women with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. However, ischemic colitis and severe complications of constipation have been major concerns leading to voluntary withdrawal of Alosetron from the market followed by remarketing with a comprehensive risk management program.

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          Most cited references 80

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          AGA technical review on irritable bowel syndrome.

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            The burden of selected digestive diseases in the United States.

            Gastrointestinal (GI) and liver diseases inflict a heavy economic burden. Although the burden is considerable, current and accessible information on the prevalence, morbidity, and cost is sparse. This study was undertaken to estimate the economic burden of GI and liver disease in the United States for use by policy makers, health care providers, and the public. Data were extracted from a number of publicly available and proprietary national databases to determine the prevalence, direct costs, and indirect costs for 17 selected GI and liver diseases. Indirect cost calculations were purposefully very conservative. These costs were compared with National Institutes of Health (NIH) research expenditures for selected GI and liver diseases. The most prevalent diseases were non-food-borne gastroenteritis (135 million cases/year), food-borne illness (76 million), gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD; 19 million), and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS; 15 million). The disease with the highest annual direct costs in the United States was GERD ($9.3 billion), followed by gallbladder disease ($5.8 billion), colorectal cancer ($4.8 billion), and peptic ulcer disease ($3.1 billion). The estimated direct costs for these 17 diseases in 1998 dollars were $36.0 billion, with estimated indirect costs of $22.8 billion. The estimated direct costs for all digestive diseases were $85.5 billion. Total NIH research expenditures were $676 million in 2000. GI and liver diseases exact heavy economic and social costs in the United States. Understanding the prevalence and costs of these diseases is important to help set priorities to reduce the burden of illness.
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              The enteric nervous system.

               Janak Goyal,  I Hirano (1996)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-6336
                1178-203X
                February 2008
                February 2008
                : 4
                : 1
                : 41-48
                Affiliations
                Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, University at Buffalo School of Medicine SUNY, Buffalo, NY, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Jeffrey M Lackner Behavioral Medicine Clinic, Department of Medicine, UB School of Medicine, SUNY, ECMC, 462 Grider Street, Buffalo, NY, 14215 USA Tel +1 716 898 5671 Fax +1 716 898 3040 Email lackner@ 123456buffalo.edu
                Article
                2503665
                18728719
                © 2008 Dove Medical Press Limited. All rights reserved
                Categories
                Review

                Medicine

                irritable bowel syndrome, tegaserod, serotonin

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