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      Health and wellbeing of Māori secondary school students in New Zealand: Trends between 2001, 2007 and 2012

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          Most cited references 18

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          Racism and health: the relationship between experience of racial discrimination and health in New Zealand.

          Accumulating research suggests that racism may be a major determinant of health. Here we report associations between self-reported experience of racial discrimination and health in New Zealand. Data from the 2002/2003 New Zealand Health Survey, a cross-sectional survey involving face-to-face interviews with 12,500 people, were analysed. Five items were included to capture racial discrimination in two dimensions: experience of ethnically motivated attack (physical or verbal), or unfair treatment because of ethnicity (by a health professional, in work or when gaining housing). Ethnicity was classified using self-identification to one of four ethnic groups: Māori, Pacific, Asian and European/Other peoples. Logistic regression, accounting for the survey design, age, sex, ethnicity and deprivation, was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Māori reported the highest prevalence of "ever" experiencing any of the forms of racial discrimination (34%), followed by similar levels among Asian (28%) and Pacific peoples (25%). Māori were almost 10 times more likely to experience multiple types of discrimination compared to European/Others (4.5% vs. 0.5%). Reported experience of racial discrimination was associated with each of the measures of health examined. Experience of any one of the five types of discrimination was significantly associated with poor or fair self-rated health; lower physical functioning; lower mental health; smoking; and cardiovascular disease. There was strong evidence of a dose-response relationship between the number of reported types of discrimination and each health measure. These results highlight the need for racism to be considered in efforts to eliminate ethnic inequalities in health.
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            Alcohol marketing and young people's drinking: a review of the research.

            The influence of alcohol advertising on young people continues to be the subject of much debate. This paper presents a review of the literature showing that, while many econometric studies suggest little effect, more focused consumer studies, especially recent ones with sophisticated designs, do show clear links between advertising and behaviour. Furthermore, these effects have to be viewed in combination with the possible impact of other marketing activities such as price promotions, distribution, point of sale activity and new product development. Here, the evidence base is less well developed, but there are indications of effects. It must be acknowledged that categorical statements of cause and effect are always difficult in the social sciences; marketing is a complex phenomenon involving the active participation of consumers as well as marketers and more research is needed on its cumulative impact. Nonetheless, the literature presents an increasingly compelling picture that alcohol marketing is having an effect on young people's drinking.
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              Decreases in adolescent weekly alcohol use in Europe and North America: evidence from 28 countries from 2002 to 2010.

              This study examined trends in adolescent weekly alcohol use between 2002 and 2010 in 28 European and North American countries.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
                Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
                Wiley
                13260200
                December 2018
                December 2018
                October 29 2018
                : 42
                : 6
                : 553-561
                Affiliations
                [1 ]School of Nursing, The University of Auckland, New Zealand
                [2 ]School of Psychology, The University of Auckland, New Zealand
                [3 ]Department of Psychological Medicine, The University of Auckland, New Zealand
                [4 ]Department of Paediatrics: Child and Youth Health, The University of Auckland, New Zealand
                [5 ]Department of Preventative and Social Medicine, The University of Otago, New Zealand
                [6 ]Pacific Studies, Te Wananga o Waipapa, The University of Auckland, New Zealand
                Article
                10.1111/1753-6405.12839
                © 2018

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/

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