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      Development of a Site-Directed Polyclonal Antibody against the Pituitary Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone Receptor and Its Use to Estimate GHRH Receptor Concentration in Normal and Hypothyroid Rats

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          Abstract

          A site-directed polyclonal antipeptide antibody was generated in rabbits against segment 392–404 of the rat pituitary growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor (GHRH-R), using a multiple antigenic peptide system strategy of immunization. This C-terminal intracellular region of the rat GHRH-R exhibits 85% sequence identity with the human GHRH-R. The purified anti-GHRH-R(392–404) IgGs were characterized in cell lines expressing the human GHRH-R and in rat and human anterior pituitary, using immunoblotting. The polyclonal antibody recognized a 45-kD protein in human GHRH-R-transfected BHK 570 cell membrane preparations but not in wild-type cells. A 45-kD N<sup>α</sup>-tagged human GHRH-R was immunodetected with both antitag and anti-GHRH-R antibodies in human GHRH-R-transfected HEK 293 cells. Cross-linking of [<sup>125</sup>I-Tyr<sup>10</sup>]hGHRH(1–44)NH<sub>2</sub> to GHRH-R-transfected BHK cells led to the detection of a major and specific 45-kD radioactive complex. Its probing with the anti-GHRH-R(392–404) IgGs led also to the detection of a 45-kD entity. In rat anterior pituitary homogenates or membrane preparations, immunoblotting led to the detection of 44-, 47- and 65-kD proteins. In human anterior pituitary membrane preparations, immunoblotting led to the detection of 52- and 55-kD proteins. No immunoreactive signal was observed in the rat liver. Cross-linking of [<sup>125</sup>I-Tyr<sup>10</sup>]hGHRH(1–44)NH<sub>2</sub> to rat anterior pituitary homogenates revealed the presence of specific 28-, 47- and 65-kD radioactive complexes. Probing of these radioactive complexes with the anti-GHRH-R(392–404) IgGs resulted in the visualization of 28-, 47- and 65-kD entities and of an additional immunoreactive 44-kD protein. To assess the usefulness of this GHRH-R antibody, estimation of changes in the concentration of rat anterior pituitary GHRH-R was performed by immunoblotting and compared to binding data after a 3-week antithyroid treatment. The treatment known to depress the 2.5- and 4-kb GHRH-R mRNA transcripts by at least 1.7-fold decreased the apparent maximal concentration of high (B<sub>max1</sub>) and low (B<sub>max2</sub>) affinity binding sites by 4.6- and 15.2-fold, respectively, and the 47- and 65-kD GHRH-R proteins by 3.5- and 1.25-fold, respectively. Altogether, the characteristics of the anti-GHRH-R(392–404) polyclonal antibody indicate that it specifically recognizes the human and rat GHRH-R. It also represents an additional valuable tool to estimate variations of GHRH-Rs in physiopathological conditions known to affect GHRH-R mRNA and/or GHRH binding site concentrations.

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          Most cited references 5

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          A peptide derived from a beta2-adrenergic receptor transmembrane domain inhibits both receptor dimerization and activation.

          One of the assumptions of the mobile receptor hypothesis as it relates to G protein-coupled receptors is that the stoichiometry of receptor, G protein, and effector is 1:1:1 (Bourne, H. R., Sanders, D. A., and McCormick, F.(1990) Nature 348, 125-132). Many studies on the cooperativity of agonist binding are incompatible with this notion and have suggested that both G proteins and their associated receptors can be oligomeric. However, a clear physical demonstration that G protein-coupled receptors can indeed interact as dimers and that such interactions may have functional consequences was lacking. Here, using differential epitope tagging we demonstrate that beta2-adrenergic receptors do form SDS-resistant homodimers and that transmembrane domain VI of the receptor may represent part of an interface for receptor dimerization. The functional importance of dimerization is supported by the observation that a peptide derived from this domain that inhibits dimerization also inhibits beta-adrenergic agonist-promoted stimulation of adenylyl cyclase activity. Moreover, agonist stimulation was found to stabilize the dimeric state of the receptor, while inverse agonists favored the monomeric species, which suggests that interconversion between monomeric and dimeric forms may be important for biological activity.
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            Pit-1-dependent expression of the receptor for growth hormone releasing factor mediates pituitary cell growth.

             C-C Lin,  S. Lin,  C-P Chang (2016)
            In Snell (dw) and Jackson (dwJ) dwarf mice, mutations in the gene encoding Pit-1, a tissue-specific POU-domain transcription factor, lead to the absence of somatotroph, lactotroph and thyrotroph cells. Pre-somatotroph proliferation is stimulated by increased intracellular levels of cyclic AMP, normally induced by growth hormone releasing factor (GRF; refs 7-17). Here we report the cloning of mouse and rat complementary DNAs encoding a new member of the seven-transmembrane-helix, G-protein-coupled receptor family restricted to the pituitary gland, which mediates increases in intracellular cAMP and cAMP-dependent gene transcription in response to GRF. The receptor is expressed in a spatial and temporal pattern corresponding precisely to growth hormone gene expression, and neither is expressed in dw/dw mice. The pituitary hypoplasia in these mice thus appears to be due, at least in part, to the absence of GRF receptor, which is in turn due to the absence of functional Pit-1.
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              • Record: found
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              Molecular cloning and expression of a human anterior pituitary receptor for growth hormone-releasing hormone

               B. D. Gaylinn (1993)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEN
                Neuroendocrinology
                10.1159/issn.0028-3835
                Neuroendocrinology
                S. Karger AG
                0028-3835
                1423-0194
                1999
                August 1999
                16 August 1999
                : 70
                : 2
                : 117-127
                Affiliations
                aLaboratory of Neuroendocrinology of Aging, Notre-Dame Hospital Research Center and Department of Medicine, University of Montreal, Quebec, Canada; bNovo Nordisk A/S, Bagsvaerd, Denmark
                Article
                54466 Neuroendocrinology 1999;70:117–127
                10.1159/000054466
                10461026
                © 1999 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 10, Tables: 2, References: 36, Pages: 11
                Categories
                Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone and Growth Hormone Secretagogues

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