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      Introducing the Global Register of Introduced and Invasive Species

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          Harmonised, representative data on the state of biological invasions remain inadequate at country and global scales, particularly for taxa that affect biodiversity and ecosystems. Information is not readily available in a form suitable for policy and reporting. The Global Register of Introduced and Invasive Species (GRIIS) provides the first country-wise checklists of introduced (naturalised) and invasive species. GRIIS was conceived to provide a sustainable platform for information delivery to support national governments. We outline the rationale and methods underpinning GRIIS, to facilitate transparent, repeatable analysis and reporting. Twenty country checklists are presented as exemplars; GRIIS Checklists for close to all countries globally will be submitted through the same process shortly. Over 11000 species records are currently in the 20 country exemplars alone, with environmental impact evidence for just over 20% of these. GRIIS provides significant support for countries to identify and prioritise invasive alien species, and establishes national and global baselines. In future this will enable a global system for sustainable monitoring of trends in biological invasions that affect the environment.

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          Global Coordination and Standardisation in Marine Biodiversity through the World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) and Related Databases

          The World Register of Marine Species is an over 90% complete open-access inventory of all marine species names. Here we illustrate the scale of the problems with species names, synonyms, and their classification, and describe how WoRMS publishes online quality assured information on marine species. Within WoRMS, over 100 global, 12 regional and 4 thematic species databases are integrated with a common taxonomy. Over 240 editors from 133 institutions and 31 countries manage the content. To avoid duplication of effort, content is exchanged with 10 external databases. At present WoRMS contains 460,000 taxonomic names (from Kingdom to subspecies), 368,000 species level combinations of which 215,000 are currently accepted marine species names, and 26,000 related but non-marine species. Associated information includes 150,000 literature sources, 20,000 images, and locations of 44,000 specimens. Usage has grown linearly since its launch in 2007, with about 600,000 unique visitors to the website in 2011, and at least 90 organisations from 12 countries using WoRMS for their data management. By providing easy access to expert-validated content, WoRMS improves quality control in the use of species names, with consequent benefits to taxonomy, ecology, conservation and marine biodiversity research and management. The service manages information on species names that would otherwise be overly costly for individuals, and thus minimises errors in the application of nomenclature standards. WoRMS' content is expanding to include host-parasite relationships, additional literature sources, locations of specimens, images, distribution range, ecological, and biological data. Species are being categorised as introduced (alien, invasive), of conservation importance, and on other attributes. These developments have a multiplier effect on its potential as a resource for biodiversity research and management. As a consequence of WoRMS, we are witnessing improved communication within the scientific community, and anticipate increased taxonomic efficiency and quality control in marine biodiversity research and management.
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            Strategies for the sustainability of online open-access biodiversity databases

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              Taxonomic bias and lack of cross-taxonomic studies in invasion biology


                Author and article information

                Sci Data
                Sci Data
                Scientific Data
                Nature Publishing Group
                23 January 2018
                : 5
                [1 ]University of Auckland , Auckland, 1072 New Zealand
                [2 ]IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group, 00144 Rome, Italy
                [3 ]Institute for Environmental Protection and Research (ISPRA) , 00144 Rome, Italy
                [4 ]Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) , Secretariat, Universitetsparken 15, Copenhagen Ø DK-2100, Denmark
                [5 ]Monash University, School of Biological Sciences , Clayton, Victoria 3800, Australia
                Author notes
                [a ] S.P. (email: s.pagad@ 123456auckland.ac.nz )
                [b ] M.A.M. (email: melodie.mcgeoch@ 123456monash.edu ).

                S.P. led the GRIIS Project Team, co-designed the Register, conducted data collection and entry, contacted and communicated with the Country Editors, generated the published checklists and co-wrote the manuscript. P.G. co-designed the Register, and as Chair of the IUCN SSC ISSG led the partnership that resulted in the development of GRIIS. L.C. co-designed the Register and manages the entry of data to the online GRIIS resource. D.S. contributed conceptually to the work and to writing the manuscript. M.A.M. provided technical advice on the design and population of the Register and led the writing of the manuscript.

                Copyright © 2018, The Author(s)

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/ applies to the metadata files made available in this article.

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                biodiversity, policy, invasive species


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