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      Intravenous dexamethasone pretreatment reduces remifentanil induced cough

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          Abstract

          Background

          Remifentanil infusion is commonly used for general anesthesia but reflex cough can occur after an intravenous (IV) infusion. This study was designed to examine the effect of IV-dexamethasone on remifentanil-induced cough (RIC).

          Methods

          One hundred thirty patients scheduled for elective surgery were randomly assigned into two groups that received by either 2 ml of IV 0.9% saline (Group C, n = 68) or 10 mg of dexamethasone (Group D, n = 62) 5 min before administration of remifentanil at a target effect-site concentration of 5 ng/ml. The incidence and severity of coughs of each patient were recorded.

          Results

          The overall incidence of cough was 6.5% (4/62 patients) in Group D and 26.5% (18/68 patients) in the Group C (P = 0.002). The severity of cough observed was significantly different by dexamethasone pretreatment (P = 0.02) but there were no significant hemodynamic changes.

          Conclusions

          Pretreatment with dexamethasone after IV administration was effective in suppressing the reflex cough induced by remifentanil infusion.

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          Most cited references 22

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          Dexamethasone for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting: a quantitative systematic review.

           M Tramèr,  B Walder,  I Henzi (1999)
          The role of dexamethasone in the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is unclear. We reviewed efficacy and safety data of dexamethasone for prevention of PONV. A systematic search (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, hand searching, bibliographies, all languages, up to April 1999) was done for full reports of randomized comparisons of dexamethasone with other antiemetics or placebo in surgical patients. Relevant end points were prevention of early PONV (0 to 6 h postoperatively), late PONV (0 to 24 h), and adverse effects. Data from 1,946 patients from 17 trials were analyzed: 598 received dexamethasone; 582 received ondansetron, granisetron, droperidol, metoclopramide, or perphenazine; 423 received a placebo; and 343 received a combination of dexamethasone with ondansetron or granisetron. With placebo, the incidence of early and late PONV was 35% and 50%, respectively. Sixteen different regimens of dexamethasone were tested, most frequently, 8 or 10 mg IV in adults, and 1 or 1.5 mg/kg IV in children. With these doses, the number needed to treat to prevent early and late vomiting compared with placebo in adults and children was 7.1 (95% CI 4.5 to 18), and 3.8 (2.9 to 5), respectively. In adults, the number needed to treat to prevent late nausea was 4.3 (2.3 to 26). The combination of dexamethasone with ondansetron or granisetron further decreased the risk of PONV; the number needed to treat to prevent late nausea and vomiting with the combined regimen compared with the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists alone was 7.7 (4.8 to 19) and 7.8 (4.1 to 66), respectively. There was a lack of data from comparisons with other antiemetics for sensible conclusions. There were no reports on dexamethasone-related adverse effects. When there is a high risk of postoperative nausea and vomiting, a single prophylactic dose of dexamethasone is antiemetic compared with placebo, without evidence of any clinically relevant toxicity in otherwise healthy patients. Late efficacy seems to be most pronounced. It is very likely that the best prophylaxis of postoperative nausea and vomiting currently available is achieved by combining dexamethasone with a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist. Optimal doses of this combination need to be identified.
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            Salbutamol, beclomethasone or sodium chromoglycate suppress coughing induced by iv fentanyl.

            Fentanyl, a synthetic opioid, is a popular choice amongst anesthesiologists in the operating room. Preinduction iv fentanyl bolus is associated with coughing in 28-45% of patients. Coughing due to fentanyl is not always benign and at times may be explosive requiring immediate intervention. We have studied the role of aerosol inhalation of salbutamol, beclomethasone and sodium chromoglycate in preventing fentanyl induced coughing and have compared their efficacy. Two hundred patients aged 18-60 yr, undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomized into four groups of 50 each. Group I served as control, while Groups II, III and IV received an aerosol inhalation of salbutamol, beclomethasone or sodium chromoglycate 15 min prior to entering the operating room. Following iv fentanyl (2 micro g x kg(-1)) the incidence of cough was recorded and graded as mild (1-2), moderate (3-5) and severe (> 5) depending on the number of coughs observed. Results were analyzed using 'z' and Fischer's Exact test. A P value of /= 0.05). The use of salbutamol, beclomethasone or sodium chromoglycate aerosol 15 min prior to iv fentanyl administration minimizes fentanyl-induced coughing.
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              Intravenous lidocaine and ephedrine, but not propofol, suppress fentanyl-induced cough.

              The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of lidocaine, propofol and ephedrine in suppressing fentanyl-induced cough. One hundred and eighteen patients were randomly assigned into four groups and the following medications were given intravenously: patients in Group I (n = 31) received normal saline 2 mL, Group II (n = 29) received lidocaine 2 mg.kg(-1), Group III (n = 30) received propofol 0.6 mg.kg(-1) and Group IV (n = 28) received ephedrine 5 mg. At one minute after the study medication, fentanyl 2.5 microg.kg(-1) was given intravenously within two seconds. The occurrence of cough and vital sign profiles were recorded within two minutes after fentanyl bolus by an anesthesiologist blinded to study design. Sixty-five percent of patients in the placebo group had cough, whereas the frequency was significantly decreased in Groups II (14%) and IV (21%). Although a numerically lower frequency of cough was noted in Group III (37%), it was not statistically different from that of the placebo group. SpO(2) decreased significantly in patients of Group III compared to placebo; one patient experienced hypoxemia necessitating mask ventilation. Patients in Group III showed a decrease in heart rate and systolic blood pressure (2 beats.min(-1) and 8 mmHg vs baseline). Patients in Group IV showed an increase in both measurements (5 beats.min(-1) and 8 mmHg vs baseline). No truncal rigidity was observed throughout the study. Intravenous lidocaine 2 mg.kg(-1) or ephedrine 5 mg, but not propofol 0.6 mg.kg(-1), was effective in preventing fentanyl-induced cough. The results provide a convenient method to decrease fentanyl-induced cough.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Korean J Anesthesiol
                KJAE
                Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
                The Korean Society of Anesthesiologists
                2005-6419
                2005-7563
                June 2011
                17 June 2011
                : 60
                : 6
                : 403-407
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University School of Medicine, Goyang, Korea.
                [2 ]Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Konkuk University Chungju Hospital, Chungju, Korea.
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Ji Yeon Kim, M.D., Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University School of Medicine, 2240, Daehwa-dong, Ilsanseo-gu, Goyang 411-706, Korea. Tel: 82-31-910-7187, Fax: 82-31-910-7184, jy67925@ 123456naver.com
                Article
                10.4097/kjae.2011.60.6.403
                3121086
                21738842
                Copyright © the Korean Society of Anesthesiologists, 2011

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Clinical Research Article

                Anesthesiology & Pain management

                cough, remifentanil, dexamethasone

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