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      Osteopontin, Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Chronic Kidney Disease

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          The pleiotropic cytokine osteopontin (OPN) is found to be involved in the pathogenesis of both kidney and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We evaluated the relationship between OPN, other cardiovascular risk factors and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) (predialysis) patients. This is a 2-year cross-sectional prospective study involving 75 patients with CKD from stage 1 to stage 5 attending the nephrology outpatient department and 25 healthy controls. Routine biochemical parameters were analyzed on clinical chemistry Autoanalyzer Beckman Coulter DXC 600 Synchron, USA. OPN was estimated by ELISA method. Carotid intima-media wall thickness was estimated by Doppler of carotid vessels. Serum OPN and other nontraditional cardiovascular risk factors such as CIMT, lipoprotein (a) Lp(a), fibrinogen, and homocysteine were significantly increased in patients of CKD compared to controls. OPN, Lp(a), fibrinogen, CIMT, parathyroid hormone, and homocysteine progressively increased from early stages of CKD and increased further with progression of the disease, but nitric oxide (NO) level progressively decreased with progression of CKD. OPN showed a positive correlation with CIMT, Lp(a), fibrinogen, and homocysteine and negative correlation with estimated glomerular filtration rate and NO. There was a close direct association between circulating levels of OPN and the presence of atherosclerotic plaques in carotid arteries of patients with CKD. Osteopontin and nontraditional CVD risk factors are altered in early stages of CKD and might predict adverse outcomes in these patients.

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          Most cited references 33

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          Clinical epidemiology of cardiovascular disease in chronic renal disease.

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            Intimal plus medial thickness of the arterial wall: a direct measurement with ultrasound imaging.

             A Poli,  P Oreste,  P Pignoli (1986)
            A study in vitro of specimens of human aortic and common carotid arteries was carried out to determine the feasibility of direct measurement (i.e., not from residual lumen) of arterial wall thickness with B mode real-time imaging. Measurements in vivo by the same technique were also obtained from common carotid arteries of 10 young normal male subjects. Aortic samples were classified as class A (relatively normal) or class B (with one or more atherosclerotic plaques). In all class A and 85% of class B arterial samples a characteristic B mode image composed of two parallel echogenic lines separated by a hypoechoic space was found. The distance between the two lines (B mode image of intimal + medial thickness) was measured and correlated with the thickness of different combinations of tunicae evaluated by gross and microscopic examination. On the basis of these findings and the results of dissection experiments on the intima and adventitia we concluded that results of B mode imaging of intimal + medial thickness did not differ significantly from the intimal + medial thickness measured on pathologic examination. With respect to the accuracy of measurements obtained by B mode imaging as compared with pathologic findings, we found an error of less than 20% for measurements in 77% of normal and pathologic aortic walls. In addition, no significant difference was found between B mode-determined intimal + medial thickness in the common carotid arteries evaluated in vitro and that determined by this method in vivo in young subjects, indicating that B mode imaging represents a useful approach for the measurement of intimal + medial thickness of human arteries in vivo.
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              Osteopontin: role in immune regulation and stress responses.

              Recent research has led to a better but as yet incomplete understanding of the complex roles osteopontin plays in mammalian physiology. A soluble protein found in all body fluids, it stimulates signal transduction pathways (via integrins and CD44 variants) similar to those stimulated by components of the extracellular matrix. This appears to promote the survival of cells exposed to potentially lethal insults such as ischemia/reperfusion or physical/chemical trauma. OPN is chemotactic for many cell types including macrophages, dendritic cells, and T cells; it enhances B lymphocyte immunoglobulin production and proliferation. In inflammatory situations it stimulates both pro- and anti-inflammatory processes, which on balance can be either beneficial or harmful depending on what other inputs the cell is receiving. OPN influences cell-mediated immunity and has been shown to have Th1-cytokine functions. OPN deficiency is linked to a reduced Th1 immune response in infectious diseases, autoimmunity and delayed type hypersensitivity. OPN's role in the central nervous system and in stress responses has also emerged as an important aspect related to its cytoprotective and immune functions. Evidence suggests that either OPN or anti-OPN monoclonal antibodies (depending on the circumstances) might be clinically useful in modulating OPN function. Manipulation of plasma OPN levels may be useful in the treatment of autoimmune disease, cancer metastasis, osteoporosis and some forms of stress.

                Author and article information

                Indian J Nephrol
                Indian J Nephrol
                Indian Journal of Nephrology
                Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd (India )
                Sep-Oct 2018
                : 28
                : 5
                : 358-364
                Department of Nephrology, Sri Venkateswara Institute of Medical Sciences, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India
                [1 ] Department of Biochemistry, Sri Venkateswara Institute of Medical Sciences, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India
                [2 ] Department of Radio Diagnosis, Sri Venkateswara Institute of Medical Sciences, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India
                Author notes
                Address for correspondence: Dr. N. Harini Devi, Department of Biochemistry, Sri Venkateswara Institute of Medical Sciences, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India. E-mail: drharinidevi@ 123456gmail.com
                Copyright: © 2018 Indian Journal of Nephrology

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