22
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: not found

      The role of cGMP signalling in regulating life cycle progression of  Plasmodium

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPMC
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          The 3′-5′-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKG) is the main mediator of cGMP signalling in the malaria parasite. This article reviews the role of PKG in Plasmodium falciparum during gametogenesis and blood stage schizont rupture, as well as the role of the Plasmodium berghei orthologue in ookinete differentiation and motility, and liver stage schizont development. The current views on potential effector proteins downstream of PKG and the mechanisms that may regulate cyclic nucleotide levels are presented.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 51

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          A proteomic view of the Plasmodium falciparum life cycle.

          The completion of the Plasmodium falciparum clone 3D7 genome provides a basis on which to conduct comparative proteomics studies of this human pathogen. Here, we applied a high-throughput proteomics approach to identify new potential drug and vaccine targets and to better understand the biology of this complex protozoan parasite. We characterized four stages of the parasite life cycle (sporozoites, merozoites, trophozoites and gametocytes) by multidimensional protein identification technology. Functional profiling of over 2,400 proteins agreed with the physiology of each stage. Unexpectedly, the antigenically variant proteins of var and rif genes, defined as molecules on the surface of infected erythrocytes, were also largely expressed in sporozoites. The detection of chromosomal clusters encoding co-expressed proteins suggested a potential mechanism for controlling gene expression.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Identification of xanthurenic acid as the putative inducer of malaria development in the mosquito.

            Malaria is transmitted from vertebrate host to mosquito vector by mature sexual blood-living stages called gametocytes. Within seconds of ingestion into the mosquito bloodmeal, gametocytes undergo gametogenesis. Induction requires the simultaneous exposure to at least two stimuli in vitro: a drop in bloodmeal temperature to 5 degrees C below that of the vertebrate host, and a rise in pH from 7.4 to 8.0-8.2. In vivo the mosquito bloodmeal has a pH of between 7.5 and 7.6. It is thought that in vivo the second inducer is an unknown mosquito-derived gametocyte-activating factor. Here we show that this factor is xanthurenic acid. We also show that low concentrations of xanthurenic acid can act together with pH to induce gametogenesis in vitro. Structurally related compounds are at least ninefold less effective at inducing gametogenesis in vitro. In Drosophila mutants with lesions in the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism (of which xanthurenic acid is a side product), no alternative active compound was detected in crude insect homogenates. These data could form the basis of the rational development of new methods of interrupting the transmission of malaria using drugs or new refractory mosquito genotypes to block parasite gametogenesis.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              The Plasmodium falciparum sexual development transcriptome: a microarray analysis using ontology-based pattern identification.

              The sexual stages of malarial parasites are essential for the mosquito transmission of the disease and therefore are the focus of transmission-blocking drug and vaccine development. In order to better understand genes important to the sexual development process, the transcriptomes of high-purity stage I-V Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes were comprehensively profiled using a full-genome high-density oligonucleotide microarray. The interpretation of this transcriptional data was aided by applying a novel knowledge-based data-mining algorithm termed ontology-based pattern identification (OPI) using current information regarding known sexual stage genes as a guide. This analysis resulted in the identification of a sexual development cluster containing 246 genes, of which approximately 75% were hypothetical, exhibiting highly-correlated, gametocyte-specific expression patterns. Inspection of the upstream promoter regions of these 246 genes revealed putative cis-regulatory elements for sexual development transcriptional control mechanisms. Furthermore, OPI analysis was extended using current annotations provided by the Gene Ontology Consortium to identify 380 statistically significant clusters containing genes with expression patterns characteristic of various biological processes, cellular components, and molecular functions. Collectively, these results, available as part of a web-accessible OPI database (http://carrier.gnf.org/publications/Gametocyte), shed light on the components of molecular mechanisms underlying parasite sexual development and other areas of malarial parasite biology.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Microbes Infect
                Microbes Infect
                Microbes and Infection / Institut Pasteur
                Elsevier
                1286-4579
                1769-714X
                August 2012
                August 2012
                : 14
                : 10-2
                : 831-837
                Affiliations
                Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, UK
                Author notes
                []Corresponding author. david.baker@ 123456lshtm.ac.uk
                Article
                MICINF3889
                10.1016/j.micinf.2012.04.011
                3484397
                22613210
                © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS.

                This document may be redistributed and reused, subject to certain conditions.

                Categories
                Article

                Infectious disease & Microbiology

                merozoite, gametocyte, kinase, egress, malaria, schizont

                Comments

                Comment on this article