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      The Bacillus BioBrick Box: generation and evaluation of essential genetic building blocks for standardized work with Bacillus subtilis


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          Standardized and well-characterized genetic building blocks are a prerequisite for the convenient and reproducible assembly of novel genetic modules and devices. While numerous standardized parts exist for Escherichia coli, such tools are still missing for the Gram-positive model organism Bacillus subtilis. The goal of this study was to develop and thoroughly evaluate such a genetic toolbox.


          We developed five BioBrick-compatible integrative B. subtilis vectors by deleting unnecessary parts and removing forbidden restriction sites to allow cloning in BioBrick (RFC10) standard. Three empty backbone vectors with compatible resistance markers and integration sites were generated, allowing the stable chromosomal integration and combination of up to three different devices in one strain. In addition, two integrative reporter vectors, based on the lacZ and luxABCDE cassettes, were BioBrick-adjusted, to enable β-galactosidase and luciferase reporter assays, respectively. Four constitutive and two inducible promoters were thoroughly characterized by quantitative, time-resolved measurements. Together, these promoters cover a range of more than three orders of magnitude in promoter strength, thereby allowing a fine-tuned adjustment of cellular protein amounts. Finally, the Bacillus BioBrick Box also provides five widely used epitope tags (FLAG, His 10, cMyc, HA, StrepII), which can be translationally fused N- or C-terminally to any protein of choice.


          Our genetic toolbox contains three compatible empty integration vectors, two reporter vectors and a set of six promoters, two of them inducible. Furthermore, five different epitope tags offer convenient protein handling and detection. All parts adhere to the BioBrick standard and hence enable standardized work with B. subtilis. We believe that our well-documented and carefully evaluated Bacillus BioBrick Box represents a very useful genetic tool kit, not only for the iGEM competition but any other BioBrick-based project in B. subtilis.

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          Most cited references45

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          Foundations for engineering biology.

          Drew Endy (2005)
          Engineered biological systems have been used to manipulate information, construct materials, process chemicals, produce energy, provide food, and help maintain or enhance human health and our environment. Unfortunately, our ability to quickly and reliably engineer biological systems that behave as expected remains quite limited. Foundational technologies that make routine the engineering of biology are needed. Vibrant, open research communities and strategic leadership are necessary to ensure that the development and application of biological technologies remains overwhelmingly constructive.
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            Golden Gate Shuffling: A One-Pot DNA Shuffling Method Based on Type IIs Restriction Enzymes

            We have developed a protocol to assemble in one step and one tube at least nine separate DNA fragments together into an acceptor vector, with 90% of recombinant clones obtained containing the desired construct. This protocol is based on the use of type IIs restriction enzymes and is performed by simply subjecting a mix of 10 undigested input plasmids (nine insert plasmids and the acceptor vector) to a restriction-ligation and transforming the resulting mix in competent cells. The efficiency of this protocol allows generating libraries of recombinant genes by combining in one reaction several fragment sets prepared from different parental templates. As an example, we have applied this strategy for shuffling of trypsinogen from three parental templates (bovine cationic trypsinogen, bovine anionic trypsinogen and human cationic trypsinogen) each divided in 9 separate modules. We show that one round of shuffling using the 27 trypsinogen entry plasmids can easily produce the 19,683 different possible combinations in one single restriction-ligation and that expression screening of a subset of the library allows identification of variants that can lead to higher expression levels of trypsin activity. This protocol, that we call ‘Golden Gate shuffling’, is robust, simple and efficient, can be performed with templates that have no homology, and can be combined with other shuffling protocols in order to introduce any variation in any part of a given gene.
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              Isolation of monoclonal antibodies specific for human c-myc proto-oncogene product.

              Six monoclonal antibodies have been isolated from mice immunized with synthetic peptide immunogens whose sequences are derived from that of the human c-myc gene product. Five of these antibodies precipitate p62c-myc from human cells, and three of these five also recognize the mouse c-myc gene product. None of the antibodies sees the chicken p110gag-myc protein. All six antibodies recognize immunoblotted p62c-myc. These reagents also provide the basis for an immunoblotting assay by which to quantitate p62c-myc in cells.

                Author and article information

                J Biol Eng
                J Biol Eng
                Journal of Biological Engineering
                BioMed Central
                2 December 2013
                : 7
                : 29
                [1 ]Department Biology I, AG Synthetic Microbiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Grosshaderner Str. 2-4, D-82152 Planegg-Martinsried, Germany
                [2 ]Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics, Theresienstr. 37, D-80333 München, Germany
                [3 ]Present affiliation: Institute of Cell and Molecular Biosciences, Newcastle University, Centre for Bacterial Cell Biology, Richardson Road, NE2 4AX Newcastle upon Tyne, UK
                Copyright © 2013 Radeck et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 23 August 2013
                : 12 November 2013

                bacillus subtilis,biobrick standard,igem,lux,luminescence,epitope tag,integrative vector,plasmid,inducible promoter


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