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      Folatos y hierro en mujeres en edad fértil de una comunidad en Venezuela afectada por la incidencia de defectos del tubo neural Translated title: Folate and iron in fertile age women from a Venezuelan community affected by incidence of neural tube defects

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          Abstract

          El objetivo de este estudio transversal fue identificar el estado nutricional de folatos y hierro en mujeres en edad fértil del Municipio Jiménez, Estado Lara, Venezuela. El muestreo fue probabilístico por conglomerados del área urbana y rural, seleccionándose 15 conglomerados donde se estudiaron a las mujeres entre 12 y 45 años (269 mujeres). Previa firma del consentimiento informado, se les practicó: Encuesta con datos personales, antecedentes y variables relacionadas con folatos y hierro; datos socioeconómicos (Encuesta Graffar-Méndez Castellano y Necesidades Básicas Insatisfechas); en muestra de sangre se determinó Hemoglobina y Folato Eritrocitario (FE); en suero se determinó Ferritina, y Folato Sérico (FS). 53,53% de la muestra presentó valores bajos de FS, y el 10,78% valores deficientes. 80,7% presentó deficiencia severa según FE y 5,9% deficiencia moderada. En ambas pruebas, la media fue mayor en mujeres tratadas con Acido Fólico ó embarazadas (p=0,000) y la media del FE también resultó mayor en adultas que adolescentes (p=0,001) y en mujeres no pobres (p=0,011); no hubo diferencias significativas según ingesta de café, alcohol, anticonceptivos, procedencia, estrato social. La anemia se determinó en 11,2%, más frecuente en adultas (p=0,029) y en las del medio urbano (p=0,042). Ferritina baja se encontró en 37.3% de la muestra, las diferencias según variables no fueron significativas. En conclusión, la prevalencia de deficiencia de hierro y folatos en mujeres en edad fértil del Municipio Jiménez es alta, ésta podría constituir un factor condicionante de defectos del tubo neural, por lo cual deben ejecutarse estrategias para superar este déficit.

          Translated abstract

          The objective of this transversal study was to determine folate and iron nutritional status of women in fertile age from Municipio Jiménez, Lara State, Venezuela. The sampling was probabilistic by conglomerates from the urban and rural areas, selecting 15 conglomerates from which women between 12 and 45 years (269), were studied. After signing informed consent, participating were interviewed for personal data, antecedents related to folate and iron, socioeconomic data (Graffar-Mendez Castellano method and unsatisfied basic needs). In blood sample was determined Hemoglobin, and Erythrocytic Folate (FE). Serum was obtained to determine Ferritin and Serum Folate (FS). 53,53% of the sample presented low FS levels, 10.78% were FS deficient. Severe FE deficiency was present in 80.7% of the cases, moderate deficiency affected 5,9%. For both tests, median was higher for women in treatment with Acido Fólico or pregnant (p=0,000), median for FE was higher for adults (p=0.001) and in non poor women (p=0.011). There were no significant differences for coffee, alcohol, anticonceptive consumption, urban or rural resident or socioeconomic strata. The prevalence of anemia was 11,2% being significantly more frequent in adults than in adolescents (p= 0,029) and in urban women (p=0,042). Low ferritin were found in 37,3% of the sample, the effect of different variables was not statistically significant. In conclusion, there is a high prevalence of iron and folate deficiencies in women of fertile age from Municipio Jiménez, which could constitute a conditioning factor for the appearance of neural tube defects.

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          Most cited references59

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          One-carbon metabolism-genome interactions in folate-associated pathologies.

          P Stover (2009)
          Impairments in folate-mediated 1-carbon metabolism are associated with several common diseases and developmental anomalies including intestinal cancers, vascular disease, cognitive decline, and neural tube defects. The etiology of folate-associated pathologies involves interactions among multiple genetic risk alleles and environmental factors, although the causal mechanisms that define the role of folate and other B-vitamins in these complex disorders remain to be established. Folate and other B-vitamins fundamentally differ from other nutrients that interact with the genome in determining health and disease outcomes in that their interaction is reciprocal. Common gene variants influence the activity of folate-dependent enzymes and anabolic pathways; folate-mediated 1-carbon metabolism is essential for the high-fidelity synthesis of DNA and activated methyl groups that are required for DNA methylation and regulation of chromatin structure. This review focuses on the regulation of folate-mediated 1-carbon metabolism and its role in maintaining genome integrity and on strategies for establishing the metabolic pathways and mechanisms that underlie folate-associated pathologies.
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            National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference

            (2014)
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              Folic acid supplementation and the occurrence of congenital heart defects, orofacial clefts, multiple births, and miscarriage.

              Key research findings relative to the question of whether maternal use of folic acid before and during pregnancy reduces the chance that offspring will be born with a congenital heart defect or an orofacial cleft are reviewed in this paper. Observational studies in general support an association between maternal use of multivitamins containing folic acid and a reduction in the occurrence of congenital heart defects and orofacial clefts. Results from one randomized controlled trial (RCT) provide the strongest evidence that multivitamins prevent congenital heart defects, but this RCT did not provide evidence that multivitamins prevent orofacial clefts. In addition, most observational and interventional studies are not designed to detect an independent effect from folic acid. Early studies suggested that periconceptional multivitamin use was associated with an increased occurrence of both miscarriages and multiple births, which has resulted in a great deal of controversy about the safety of folic acid use during pregnancy. We also review reports that were designed to answer these questions with more definitive data. When more substantial evidence about the effect of periconceptional folic acid on the occurrence of congenital heart defects and orofacial clefts is reported, we will have additional support for promoting folic acid intervention programs. All women capable of becoming pregnant should continue to consume 400 mug/d of folic acid in addition to a healthy diet as advised.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                alan
                Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición
                ALAN
                Sociedad Latinoamericana de Nutrición (Caracas )
                0004-0622
                June 2010
                : 60
                : 2
                : 133-140
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Universidad Centroccidental Lisandro Alvarado UCLA Venezuela
                Article
                S0004-06222010000200004
                0634631a-28b7-4f12-bd56-2d5e5fc35344

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                History
                Product

                SciELO Venezuela

                Self URI (journal page): http://www.scielo.org.ve/scielo.php?script=sci_serial&pid=0004-0622&lng=en
                Categories
                NUTRITION & DIETETICS

                Nutrition & Dietetics
                Folate,iron,anemia,nutrition,Folatos,hierro,nutrición
                Nutrition & Dietetics
                Folate, iron, anemia, nutrition, Folatos, hierro, nutrición

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