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      A secreted MMP is required for reepithelialization during wound healing

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          Abstract

          The role of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in wound healing has been difficult to analyze because of redundancy among the 24 mouse MMPs. Drosophila has only two MMPs, and each MMP is required for epidermal wound healing. Mmp1 promotes basement membrane assembly, cell migration, and ERK signaling, and its levels correlate with the rate of healing.

          Abstract

          Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are extracellular proteases highly expressed at wound sites. However, the precise function of MMPs during reepithelialization in vivo has been elusive in mammalian models because of the high level of redundancy among the 24 mammalian MMPs. For this reason we used Drosophila melanogaster, whose genome encodes only two MMPs—one secreted type ( Mmp1) and one membrane-anchored type ( Mmp2)—to study the function and regulation of the secreted class of MMPs in vivo. In the absence of redundancy, we found that the Drosophila secreted MMP, Mmp1, is required in the epidermis to facilitate reepithelialization by remodeling the basement membrane, promoting cell elongation and actin cytoskeletal reorganization, and activating extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling. In addition, we report that the jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway upregulates Mmp1 expression after wounding, but that Mmp1 is expressed independent of the JNK pathway in unwounded epidermis. When the JNK pathway is ectopically activated to overexpress Mmp1, the rate of healing is accelerated in an Mmp1-dependent manner. A primary function of Mmp1, under the control of the JNK pathway, is to promote basement membrane repair, which in turn may permit cell migration and the restoration of a continuous tissue.

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          Most cited references 52

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          Rapid planetesimal formation in turbulent circumstellar discs

          The initial stages of planet formation in circumstellar gas discs proceed via dust grains that collide and build up larger and larger bodies (Safronov 1969). How this process continues from metre-sized boulders to kilometre-scale planetesimals is a major unsolved problem (Dominik et al. 2007): boulders stick together poorly (Benz 2000), and spiral into the protostar in a few hundred orbits due to a head wind from the slower rotating gas (Weidenschilling 1977). Gravitational collapse of the solid component has been suggested to overcome this barrier (Safronov 1969, Goldreich & Ward 1973, Youdin & Shu 2002). Even low levels of turbulence, however, inhibit sedimentation of solids to a sufficiently dense midplane layer (Weidenschilling & Cuzzi 1993, Dominik et al. 2007), but turbulence must be present to explain observed gas accretion in protostellar discs (Hartmann 1998). Here we report the discovery of efficient gravitational collapse of boulders in locally overdense regions in the midplane. The boulders concentrate initially in transient high pressures in the turbulent gas (Johansen, Klahr, & Henning 2006), and these concentrations are augmented a further order of magnitude by a streaming instability (Youdin & Goodman 2005, Johansen, Henning, & Klahr 2006, Johansen & Youdin 2007) driven by the relative flow of gas and solids. We find that gravitationally bound clusters form with masses comparable to dwarf planets and containing a distribution of boulder sizes. Gravitational collapse happens much faster than radial drift, offering a possible path to planetesimal formation in accreting circumstellar discs.
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            A protein trap strategy to detect GFP-tagged proteins expressed from their endogenous loci in Drosophila.

            In Drosophila, enhancer trap strategies allow rapid access to expression patterns, molecular data, and mutations in trapped genes. However, they do not give any information at the protein level, e.g., about the protein subcellular localization. Using the green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a mobile artificial exon carried by a transposable P-element, we have developed a protein trap system. We screened for individual flies, in which GFP tags full-length endogenous proteins expressed from their endogenous locus, allowing us to observe their cellular and subcellular distribution. GFP fusions are targeted to virtually any compartment of the cell. In the case of insertions in previously known genes, we observe that the subcellular localization of the fusion protein corresponds to the described distribution of the endogenous protein. The artificial GFP exon does not disturb upstream and downstream splicing events. Many insertions correspond to genes not predicted by the Drosophila Genome Project. Our results show the feasibility of a protein trap in Drosophila. GFP reveals in real time the dynamics of protein's distribution in the whole, live organism and provides useful markers for a number of cellular structures and compartments.
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              Wound repair at a glance.

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Monitoring Editor
                Journal
                Mol Biol Cell
                molbiolcell
                mbc
                Mol. Bio. Cell
                Molecular Biology of the Cell
                The American Society for Cell Biology
                1059-1524
                1939-4586
                15 March 2012
                : 23
                : 6
                : 1068-1079
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Cell and Developmental Biology and Program in Developmental Biology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232
                bDepartment of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232
                University of Geneva
                Author notes
                *Address correspondence to: Andrea Page-McCaw ( andrea.page-mccaw@ 123456vanderbilt.edu ).
                Article
                E11-09-0745
                10.1091/mbc.E11-09-0745
                3302734
                22262460
                © 2012 Stevens and Page-McCaw. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

                “ASCB®,” “The American Society for Cell Biology®,” and “Molecular Biology of the Cell®” are registered trademarks of The American Society of Cell Biology.

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                Cell Motility

                Molecular biology

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