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      Prevalence and predictors of sleep apnea in patients with stable coronary artery disease: a cross-sectional study

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          Sleep apnea (SA) is increasingly recognized as being important in the prognosis of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD); however, symptoms of SA are not easily identified, and as many as 80% of sufferers remain undiagnosed.


          This cross-sectional study investigated the prevalence and predictors of SA that may help to increase the awareness and diagnosis of SA in stable CAD patients.

          Materials and methods

          Polysomnography was performed in 772 medically stable CAD patients with untreated SA recruited from the Clinic of Cardiovascular Rehabilitation. Patients were predominantly male (76%), median age was 58 years (32–81). All subjects completed the Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS). The frequency of all apneas and hypopneas associated with 3% oxygen desaturation is referred to as the apnea–hypopnea index (AHI). Mild-to-severe SA was defined as AHI ≥5/h, moderate-to-severe SA as AHI ≥15/h.


          AHI was within a range of values that was considered normal or only mildly elevated. The median AHI was 3.4 (interquartile range [IQR 1–9]), and 39% of patients had unrecognized mild-to-severe SA (moderate-to-severe in 14%), which was not higher than other known risk indicators for CAD such as hypertension and obesity (83% and 47%, respectively). These patients did not show sleepiness and the risk-related cut-off score for excessive daily sleepiness was lower than the official for ESS.


          Hypertension, age, male gender, obesity, ESS ≥6, and left ventricular ejection fraction ≤45% were the best predictors of mild-to-severe SA. While, male gender, age 50–70 years and, mainly, the presence of obesity but not hypertension were clinical predictors for moderate-to-severe SA. In addition, association between mild-to-severe SA and obesity was not evident in women. SA is prevalent comorbidity in the stable CAD patients, especially in its asymptomatic mild form. We suggest that SA should be considered in the secondary prevention protocols for CAD.

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          Most cited references 42

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          Sleep-disordered breathing and cardiovascular disease: cross-sectional results of the Sleep Heart Health Study.

          Disordered breathing during sleep is associated with acute, unfavorable effects on cardiovascular physiology, but few studies have examined its postulated association with cardiovascular disease (CVD). We examined the cross-sectional association between sleep- disordered breathing and self-reported CVD in 6,424 free-living individuals who underwent overnight, unattended polysomnography at home. Sleep-disordered breathing was quantified by the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI)-the average number of apneas and hypopneas per hour of sleep. Mild to moderate disordered breathing during sleep was highly prevalent in the sample (median AHI: 4.4; interquartile range: 1.3 to 11.0). A total of 1,023 participants (16%) reported at least one manifestation of CVD (myocardial infarction, angina, coronary revascularization procedure, heart failure, or stroke). The multivariable-adjusted relative odds (95% CI) of prevalent CVD for the second, third, and fourth quartiles of the AHI (versus the first) were 0.98 (0.77-1.24), 1.28 (1.02-1.61), and 1.42 (1.13-1.78), respectively. Sleep-disordered breathing was associated more strongly with self-reported heart failure and stroke than with self-reported coronary heart disease: the relative odds (95% CI) of heart failure, stroke, and coronary heart disease (upper versus lower AHI quartile) were 2.38 (1.22-4.62), 1.58 (1.02- 2.46), and 1.27 (0.99-1.62), respectively. These findings are compatible with modest to moderate effects of sleep-disordered breathing on heterogeneous manifestations of CVD within a range of AHI values that are considered normal or only mildly elevated.
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            Obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea and related clinical features in a population-based sample of subjects aged 30 to 70 yr.

            The prevalence and related clinical features of obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea (OSAH) in the general population were estimated in a two-phase cross-sectional study. The first phase, completed by 2,148 subjects (76.9%), included a home survey, blood pressure, and a portable respiratory recording, whereas in the second, subjects with suspected OSAH (n = 442) and a subgroup of those with normal results (n = 305) were invited to undergo polysomnography (555 accepted). Habitual snoring was found in 35% of the population and breathing pauses in 6%. Both features occurred more frequently in men, showed a trend to increase with age, and were significantly associated with OSAH. Daytime hypersomnolence occurred in 18% of the subjects and was not associated with OSAH. An apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) > or = 10 was found in 19% of men and 15% of women. The prevalence of OSAH (AHI > or = 5) increased with age in both sexes, with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.2 for each 10-yr increase. AHI was associated with hypertension after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, neck circumference, alcohol use, and smoking habit. This study adds evidence for a link between OSAH and hypertension.
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              Sleep apnea and cardiovascular disease: an American Heart Association/american College Of Cardiology Foundation Scientific Statement from the American Heart Association Council for High Blood Pressure Research Professional Education Committee, Council on Clinical Cardiology, Stroke Council, and Council On Cardiovascular Nursing. In collaboration with the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute National Center on Sleep Disorders Research (National Institutes of Health).


                Author and article information

                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                18 August 2017
                : 13
                : 1031-1042
                [1 ]Laboratory of Clinical Physiology and Rehabilitation, Behavioral Medicine Institute, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Palanga, Lithuania
                [2 ]Laboratory of Psychosomatic Research, Behavioral Medicine Institute, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Palanga, Lithuania
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Audrius Alonderis, Laboratory of Clinical Physiology and Rehabilitation, Behavioral Medicine Institute, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Vyduno str. 4, Palanga, LT-00135, Lithuania, Email audrius.alonderis@ 123456lsmuni.lt
                © 2017 Alonderis et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Original Research


                sleep apnea, ahi, age, cad, gender differences, apnea–hypopnea index


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