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Trajectories of depression in adults with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes: results from the German Multicenter Diabetes Cohort Study

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      The Prevalence of Comorbid Depression in Adults With Diabetes: A meta-analysis

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        Examining a bidirectional association between depressive symptoms and diabetes.

        Depressive symptoms are associated with development of type 2 diabetes, but it is unclear whether type 2 diabetes is a risk factor for elevated depressive symptoms. To examine the bidirectional association between depressive symptoms and type 2 diabetes. Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, a longitudinal, ethnically diverse cohort study of US men and women aged 45 to 84 years enrolled in 2000-2002 and followed up until 2004-2005. Elevated depressive symptoms defined by Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) score of 16 or higher, use of antidepressant medications, or both. The CES-D score was also modeled continuously. Participants were categorized as normal fasting glucose ( or = 126 mg/dL or receiving treatment). Analysis 1 included 5201 participants without type 2 diabetes at baseline and estimated the relative hazard of incident type 2 diabetes over 3.2 years for those with and without depressive symptoms. Analysis 2 included 4847 participants without depressive symptoms at baseline and calculated the relative odds of developing depressive symptoms over 3.1 years for those with and without type 2 diabetes. In analysis 1, the incidence rate of type 2 diabetes was 22.0 and 16.6 per 1000 person-years for those with and without elevated depressive symptoms, respectively. The risk of incident type 2 diabetes was 1.10 times higher for each 5-unit increment in CES-D score (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.19) after adjustment for demographic factors and body mass index. This association persisted following adjustment for metabolic, inflammatory, socioeconomic, or lifestyle factors, although it was no longer statistically significant following adjustment for the latter (relative hazard, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.99-1.19). In analysis 2, the incidence rates of elevated depressive symptoms per 1000-person years were 36.8 for participants with normal fasting glucose; 27.9 for impaired fasting glucose; 31.2 for untreated type 2 diabetes, and 61.9 for treated type 2 diabetes. Compared with normal fasting glucose, the demographic-adjusted odds ratios of developing elevated depressive symptoms were 0.79 (95% CI, 0.63-0.99) for impaired fasting glucose, 0.75 (95% CI, 0.44-1.27) for untreated type 2 diabetes, and 1.54 (95% CI, 1.13-2.09) for treated type 2 diabetes. None of these associations with incident depressive symptoms were materially altered with adjustment for body mass index, socioeconomic and lifestyle factors, and comorbidities. Findings in both analyses were comparable across ethnic groups. A modest association of baseline depressive symptoms with incident type 2 diabetes existed that was partially explained by lifestyle factors. Impaired fasting glucose and untreated type 2 diabetes were inversely associated with incident depressive symptoms, whereas treated type 2 diabetes showed a positive association with depressive symptoms. These associations were not substantively affected by adjustment for potential confounding or mediating factors.
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          Epidemiology of depression and diabetes: a systematic review.

          Research suggests that co-morbid diabetes and depression is common; however, the implications for clinical practice remain unclear. This paper reviews the current epidemiological evidence on comorbid diabetes and depression, in order to identify the key publications which could both inform practice and identify gaps in knowledge and research. A systematic review was conducted to identify published literature on the epidemiology of diabetes and depression. In order to review evidence on up-to-date knowledge of recent research and innovations in care literature searches for the last five years (August 2006-August 2011) were conducted. To identify relevant literature, electronic databases MEDLINE, Psych-INFO and EMBASE were searched for English language articles in peer-reviewed journals. High rates of co-morbidity of depression and diabetes have been reported. The prevalence rate of depression is more than three-times higher in people with type 1 diabetes (12%, range 5.8-43.3% vs. 3.2%, range 2.7-11.4%) and nearly twice as high in people with type 2 diabetes (19.1%, range 6.5-33% vs. 10.7%, range 3.8-19.4%) compared to those without. Women with diabetes and also women without diabetes experience a higher prevalence of depression than men. Reviewed studies provide support for a modest relationship between diabetes and depressive symptoms, but the exact direction of this relationship remains unclear. Most studies reviewed were cross-sectional and this limits any conclusions about the causal nature and direction of the relationship between diabetes and depression. Variation in measurement methods, lack of longitudinal data and few studies outside Europe and America limit the generalizability of the findings of this review. Current research suggests that the risk of developing depression is increased in people with diabetes; however, further studies are required in order to establish the nature of the relationship between depression, glycaemic control and the development of diabetes complications, and make appropriate recommendations for treatment and to support self-management of diabetes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            Diabetologia
            Diabetologia
            Springer Nature
            0012-186X
            1432-0428
            January 2017
            October 27 2016
            : 60
            : 1
            : 60-68
            10.1007/s00125-016-4123-0
            © 2016

            http://www.springer.com/tdm

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