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      Bioactive protein fraction DLBS1033 containing lumbrokinase isolated from Lumbricus rubellus: ex vivo, in vivo, and pharmaceutic studies

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          Abstract

          DLBS1033 is a bioactive protein fraction isolated from Lumbricus rubellus that tends to be unstable when exposed to the gastrointestinal environment. Accordingly, appropriate pharmaceutical development is needed to maximize absorption of the protein fraction in the gastrointestinal tract. In vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo stability assays were performed to study the stability of the bioactive protein fraction in gastric conditions. The bioactive protein fraction DLBS1033 was found to be unstable at low pH and in gastric fluid. The “enteric coating” formulation showed no leakage in gastric fluid–like medium and possessed a good release profile in simulated intestinal medium. DLBS1033 was absorbed through the small intestine in an intact protein form, confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS PAGE) analysis. This result confirmed that an enteric coating formula using methacrylic acid copolymer could protect DLBS1033 from the acidic condition of the stomach by preventing the release of DLBS1033 in the stomach, while promoting its release when reaching the intestine. From the blood concentration–versus-time curve, 99mTc-DLBS1033 showed a circulation half-life of 70 minutes. This relatively long biological half-life supports its function as a thrombolytic protein. Thus, an enteric delivery system is considered the best approach for DLBS1033 as an oral thrombolytic agent.

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          Species differences between mouse, rat, dog, monkey and human CYP-mediated drug metabolism, inhibition and induction.

          Animal models are commonly used in the preclinical development of new drugs to predict the metabolic behaviour of new compounds in humans. It is, however, important to realise that humans differ from animals with regards to isoform composition, expression and catalytic activities of drug-metabolising enzymes. In this review the authors describe similarities and differences in this respect among the different species, including man. This may be helpful for drug researchers to choose the most relevant animal species in which the metabolism of a compound can be studied for extrapolating the results to humans. The authors focus on CYPs, which are the main enzymes involved in numerous oxidative reactions and often play a critical role in the metabolism and pharmacokinetics of xenobiotics. In addition, induction and inhibition of CYPs are compared among species. The authors conclude that CYP2E1 shows no large differences between species, and extrapolation between species appears to hold quite well. In contrast, the species-specific isoforms of CYP1A, -2C, -2D and -3A show appreciable interspecies differences in terms of catalytic activity and some caution should be applied when extrapolating metabolism data from animal models to humans.
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            The United States Pharmacopeia

            (2011)
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              Protein and Peptide Drug Delivery: Oral Approaches

              Till recent, injections remained the most common means for administering therapeutic proteins and peptides because of their poor oral bioavailability. However, oral route would be preferred to any other route because of its high levels of patient acceptance and long term compliance, which increases the therapeutic value of the drug. Designing and formulating a polypeptide drug delivery through the gastro intestinal tract has been a persistent challenge because of their unfavorable physicochemical properties, which includes enzymatic degradation, poor membrane permeability and large molecular size. The main challenge is to improve the oral bioavailability from less than 1% to at least 30-50%. Consequently, efforts have intensified over the past few decades, where every oral dosage form used for the conventional small molecule drugs has been used to explore oral protein and peptide delivery. Various strategies currently under investigation include chemical modification, formulation vehicles and use of enzyme inhibitors, absorption enhancers and mucoadhesive polymers. This review summarizes different pharmaceutical approaches which overcome various physiological barriers that help to improve oral bioavailability that ultimately achieve formulation goals for oral delivery.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2014
                25 September 2014
                : 8
                : 1585-1593
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Dexa Laboratories of Biomolecular Sciences, Dexa Medica, Cikarang, Indonesia
                [2 ]National Nuclear Energy Agency, Bandung, Indonesia
                [3 ]School of Pharmacy, Bandung Institute of Technology, Bandung, Indonesia
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Raymond R Tjandrawinata, Dexa Laboratories of Biomolecular Sciences, Dexa Medica, Industri Selatan V Block PP no 7, Kawasan Industri Jababeka II, Cikarang 17550, Indonesia, Tel +62 21 8984 1901, Fax +62 21 8984 1905, Email raymond@ 123456dexa-medica.com
                Article
                dddt-8-1585
                10.2147/DDDT.S66007
                4181543
                25284988
                © 2014 Tjandrawinata et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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                Original Research

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