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      Alpha-Ketoglutarate: An Effective Feed Supplement in Improving Bone Metabolism and Muscle Quality of Laying Hens: A Preliminary Study


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          High egg production in laying hens can negatively affect their skeletal system, which serves as a reservoir of minerals. Intense bone metabolism due to eggshell production in laying hens can lead to bone loss and subsequent fractures. Spent laying hens’ meat can be also used as raw material for the manufacture of processed products. Alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG), a precursor of amino-acid glutamine, effectively improves growth performance, bone metabolism, immunity, and alleviate intestinal mucosal damage. The aim of this experiment was to assess the effect of dietary AKG supplementation on performance, serum hormonal parameters, intestine structure, bone parameters, articular cartilage degradation and characteristics of meat quality of laying hens with a mature skeletal system. The results of our study showed that dietary AKG supplementation did not influence feed intake, weight gain, or laying performance, but improved bone metabolism, increased bone collagen synthesis. Moreover, dietary AKG significantly decreased the cholesterol content of breast muscle. The results showed that AKG can be a valuable feed supplement, positively influencing the bone health status and welfare of laying hens.


          The aim of the experiment was to assess the effect of dietary alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) supplementation on performance, serum hormonal indices, duodenum and jejunum histomorphometry, meat quality characteristics, bone quality traits and cartilage degradation in laying hens with a mature skeletal system. Forty-eight 30 week-old Bovans Brown laying hens were randomly assigned to a control group or the group fed the basal diet plus 1.0% AKG. The experimental trial lasted 30 weeks. The supplementation of AKG increases blood serum content of leptin, ghrelin, bone alkaline phosphatate and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-Β ligand, while osteoprotegerin and osteocalcin decrease. While dietary AKG was given to laying hens negatively influenced villus length, crypt depth, villus/crypt ratio and absorptive surface area in duodenum and jejunum, these changes have no effect on feed intake, weight gain, nor laying performance. In breast muscles, no significant changes in skeletal muscle fatty acid composition were observed, however, a higher shear force and decreased cholesterol content following AKG supplementation were noted, showing the improvement of muscle quality. While dietary AKG supplementation did not affect the general geometric and mechanical properties of the tibia, it increased collagen synthesis and enhanced immature collagen content. In medullary bone, an increase of bone volume fraction, trabecular thickness, fractal dimension and decrease of trabecular space were observed in AKG supplemented group. The trabeculae in bone metaphysis were also significantly thicker after AKG supplementation. AKG promoted fibrillogenesis in articular cartilage, as indicated by increased cartilage oligomeric matrix protein immunoexpression. By improving the structure and maintaining the proper bone turnover rate of highly reactive and metabolically active medullar and trabecular bones AKG showed its anti-osteoporotic action in laying hens.

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          NIH Image to ImageJ: 25 years of image analysis

          For the past twenty five years the NIH family of imaging software, NIH Image and ImageJ have been pioneers as open tools for scientific image analysis. We discuss the origins, challenges and solutions of these two programs, and how their history can serve to advise and inform other software projects.
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              Picrosirius staining plus polarization microscopy, a specific method for collagen detection in tissue sections

              Sirius Red, a strong anionic dye, stains collagen by reacting, via its sulphonic acid groups, with basic groups present in the collagen molecule. The elongated dye molecules are attached to the collagen fibre in such a way that their long axes are parallel. This parallel relationship between dye and collagen results in an enhanced birefringency. Examination of tissue sections from 15 species of vertebrates suggests that staining with Sirius Red, when combined with enhancement of birefringency, may be considered specific for collagen. An improved and modified method of staining with Sirius Red is presented.

                Author and article information

                Animals (Basel)
                Animals (Basel)
                Animals : an Open Access Journal from MDPI
                17 December 2020
                December 2020
                : 10
                : 12
                : 2420
                [1 ]Department of Animal Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Akademicka St. 12, 20-950 Lublin, Poland
                [2 ]Department of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science, National Research Institute of Animal Production, Krakowska St. 1, 32-083 Balice, Poland; sylwester.swiatkiewicz@ 123456izoo.krakow.pl (S.Ś.); anna.arczewska@ 123456izoo.krakow.pl (A.A.-W.)
                [3 ]Department of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Ethology, Faculty of Animal Sciences, University of Agriculture in Kraków, 24/28 Mickiewicza Ave., 30-059 Cracow, Poland; wojtysiakd@ 123456wp.pl
                [4 ]Department of Functional Anatomy and Cytobiology, Faculty of Biology and Biotechnology, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, Akademicka St. 19, 20-033 Lublin, Poland; piotr.dobrowolski@ 123456umcs.lublin.pl (P.D.); monhul@ 123456o2.pl (M.H.-S.)
                [5 ]Department of Commodity Science and Processing of Raw Animal Materials, Faculty of Animal Sciences and Bioeconomy, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Akademicka St. 13, 20-950 Lublin, Poland; piotr.domaradzki@ 123456up.lublin.pl
                [6 ]Department of Biophysics, Faculty of Environmental Biology, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Akademicka St. 13, 20-950 Lublin, Poland; izabela.swietlicka@ 123456up.lublin.pl
                [7 ]School of Physiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, 7 York Road, Parktown, Johannesburg 2193, South Africa; janine.donaldson@ 123456wits.ac.za
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                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                : 23 October 2020
                : 16 December 2020

                α-ketoglutaric acid,akg,laying hens,bone,intestine,hormone
                α-ketoglutaric acid, akg, laying hens, bone, intestine, hormone


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