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      Symptoms After Hospital Discharge Following Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

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          The purposes of this study were to assess the symptoms of hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients after hospital discharge, and to determine the needs of transplant patients for symptom management.

          Materials and Methods:

          The study adopted a descriptive design. The study sample comprised of 66 hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients. The study was conducted in Istanbul. Data were collected using Patient Information Form and Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale (MSAS).


          The frequency of psychological symptoms in hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients after discharge period (PSYCH subscale score 2.11 (standard deviation (SD) = 0.69, range: 0.93-3.80)) was higher in hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients than frequency of physical symptoms (PHYS subscale score: 1.59 (SD = 0.49, range: 1.00-3.38)). Symptom distress caused by psychological and physical symptoms were at moderate level (mean = 1.91, SD = 0.60, range: 0.95-3.63) and most distressing symptoms were problems with sexual interest or activity, difficulty sleeping, and diarrhea. Patients who did not have an additional chronic disease obtained higher MSAS scores. University graduates obtained higher Global Distress Index (GDI) subscale and total MSAS scores with comparison to primary school graduates. Total MSAS, MSAS-PHYS subscale, and MSAS-PSYCH subscale scores were higher in patients with low level of income ( P < 0.05). The patients (98.5%) reported to receive education about symptom management after hospital discharge.


          Hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients continue to experience many distressing physical or psychological symptoms after discharge and need to be supported and educated for the symptom management.

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          Most cited references 33

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          The Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale: an instrument for the evaluation of symptom prevalence, characteristics and distress.

          The Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale (MSAS) is a new patient-rated instrument that was developed to provide multidimensional information about a diverse group of common symptoms. This study evaluated the reliability and validity of the MSAS in the cancer population. Randomly selected inpatients and outpatients (n = 246) with prostate, colon, breast or ovarian cancer were assessed using the MSAS and a battery of measures that independently evaluate phenomena related to quality of life. Symptom prevalence in the 218 evaluable patients ranged from 73.9% for lack of energy to 10.6% for difficulty swallowing. Based on a content analysis, three symptoms were deleted and two were added; the revised scale evaluates 32 physical and psychological symptoms. A factor analysis of variance yielded two factors that distinguished three major symptom groups and several subgroups. The major groups comprised psychological symptoms (PSYCH), high prevalence physical symptoms (PHYS H), and low prevalence physical symptoms (PHYS L). Internal consistency was high in the PHYS H and PSYCH groups (Cronback alpha coefficients of 0.88 and 0.83, respectively), and moderate in the PHYS L group (alpha = 0.58). Although the severity, frequency and distress dimensions were highly intercorrelated, canonical correlations and other analyses demonstrated that multidimensional assessment (frequency and distress) augments information about the impact of symptoms. High correlations with clinical status and quality of life measures support the validity of the MSAS and indicate the utility of several subscale scores, including PSYCH, PHYS, and a brief Global Distress Index. The MSAS is a reliable and valid instrument for the assessment of symptom prevalence, characteristics and distress. It provides a method for comprehensive symptom assessment that may be useful when information about symptoms is desirable, such as clinical trials that incorporate quality of life measures or studies of symptom epidemiology.
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            Symptoms and quality of life in diverse patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

            Symptoms and quality of life (QOL) are critically important in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). However, few studies have examined these factors by transplant type among diverse cultures. To identify and compare QOL and symptom severity and prevalence by transplant type in a diverse population having HSCT. The M. D. Anderson Symptom Inventory Blood and Marrow Transplantation (MDASI-BMT) module measured symptom severity and its impact. The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Bone Marrow Transplant (FACT-BMT) measured QOL. Symptom data were collected from 164 patients at eight points (pretransplant to 100 days post-transplant) and QOL data at four times. Over time, symptom severity was significantly correlated with QOL and patients who had allogeneic transplants with myeloablative regimens showed more severe sleep disturbance and poorer QOL than patients having autologous transplants. Male patients reported less fatigue than female patients. However, ethnicity was not significant. Patients whose functional status was good had fewer of the five worst symptoms and higher QOL than patients with a poor functional status. Patients with acute graft-versus-host disease had more severe symptoms than those who did not. Type of transplant and preparative regimen are the most important aspects to consider when managing symptoms and QOL. This information is important for providing anticipatory guidance and support needed during the transplantation experience, to explore in future research the mechanisms involved in symptoms after HSCT, and to develop additional effective interventions. Copyright © 2012 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              Predictors of health-related quality of life in patients treated with auto- and allo-SCT for hematological malignancies.

              Identifying factors that predict health-related quality of life (QOL) following hematopoietic SCT, is important in estimating patients' abilities to adjust to the consequences of their disease and treatment. As the studies that have been published on this subject are scattered, the present study aimed to systematically review prognostic factors for health-related QOL after auto- and allo-SCT in hematological malignancies. A systematic, computerized search in Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Library was conducted from 2002 to June 2010. The methodological quality of the studies was assessed using an adaptation of Hayden's criteria list. Qualitative data synthesis was performed to determine the strength of the scientific evidence. In all, 35 studies fulfilled the selection criteria. Strong-moderate evidence was found for GVHD, conditioning regimen, being female, younger age, receiving less social support and pre-transplant psychological distress as predictors of various aspects of health-related QOL following hematopoietic SCT. The results of this review may help transplant teams in selecting patients at risk for experiencing a diminished health-related QOL following hematopoietic SCT. Follow-up treatment can be provided in order to promote QOL.

                Author and article information

                Indian J Palliat Care
                Indian J Palliat Care
                Indian Journal of Palliative Care
                Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd (India )
                Jan-Apr 2014
                : 20
                : 1
                : 41-49
                Clinical Nurse, Sisli Florence Nightingale Hospital Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Unit, Abide-i Hurriyet Caddesi, Sisli, Istanbul, Turkey
                [1 ]Department of Nursing, Bahcesehir University Faculty of Health Sciences, Ciragan Caddesi Osmanpasa Mektebi Sokak, Besiktas, Istanbul, Turkey
                Author notes
                Address for correspondence: Dr. Semiha Akin; E-mail: semihaakin@
                Copyright: © Indian Journal of Palliative Care

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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