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      Cytotoxic and antiviral activities of Jatropha variegata and Jatropha spinosa in relation to their metabolite profile


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          Jatropha variegata and Jatropha spinosa (family: Euphorbiaceae) are utilized in Yemeni traditional medicine to treat respiratory tract infection and in different skin conditions such as wound healing, as antibacterial and hemostatic. In this study, we evaluated the cytotoxicity and the antiviral activities of the methanolic J. variegata (leaves: Ext-1, stems: Ext-2, and roots: Ext-3), and J. spinosa extracts (aerial parts: Ext-4 and roots: Ext-5), in addition to their methylene chloride fractions of roots extracts ( F-6 and F-7, respectively). All samples were tested against three human cancer cell lines in vitro (MCF-7, HepG2, and A549) and two viruses (HSV-2 and H1N1). Both plants showed significant cytotoxicity, among them, the methylene chloride fractions of roots of J. variegata ( F-6 ) and J. spinosa roots (F-7) showed the highest activity on MCF-7 (IC 50 = 1.4 and 1 μg/mL), HepG2 (IC 50 = 0.64 and 0.24 μg/mL), and A549 (IC 50 = 0.7 and 0.5 μg/mL), respectively, whereas the IC 50 values of the standard doxorubicin were (3.83, 4.73, and 4.57 μg/mL) against MCF-7, HepG2, and A549, respectively. These results revealed that the roots of both plants are potential targets for cytotoxic activities. The in vitro results revealed potential antiviral activity for each of Ext-3, Ext-5, F-6, and F-7 against HVS-2 with IC 50 of 101.23, 68.83, 4.88, 3.24 μg/mL and against H1N1 with IC 50 of 51.29, 27.92, 4.24, and 3.06 μg/mL respectively, whereas the IC 50 value of the standard acyclovir against HVS-2 was 83.19 μg/mL and IC 50 value of the standard ribavirin against H1N1 was 52.40 μg/mL .The methanol extracts of the roots ( Ext-3 and Ext-5) of both plants were characterized using UPLC/MS. A total of 73 metabolites were annotated, including fourteen diterpenoids, eleven flavonoids, ten phenolic acid conjugates, twelve fatty acids and their conjugates, five triterpenes and steroids, two sesquiterpenes, and six coumarins. The cytotoxicity and antiviral activities determined in the present work are explained by the existence of flavonoids, coumarins and diterpenes with commonly known cytotoxicity and antiviral activities.

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          New colorimetric cytotoxicity assay for anticancer-drug screening.

          We have developed a rapid, sensitive, and inexpensive method for measuring the cellular protein content of adherent and suspension cultures in 96-well microtiter plates. The method is suitable for ordinary laboratory purposes and for very large-scale applications, such as the National Cancer Institute's disease-oriented in vitro anticancer-drug discovery screen, which requires the use of several million culture wells per year. Cultures fixed with trichloroacetic acid were stained for 30 minutes with 0.4% (wt/vol) sulforhodamine B (SRB) dissolved in 1% acetic acid. Unbound dye was removed by four washes with 1% acetic acid, and protein-bound dye was extracted with 10 mM unbuffered Tris base [tris (hydroxymethyl)aminomethane] for determination of optical density in a computer-interfaced, 96-well microtiter plate reader. The SRB assay results were linear with the number of cells and with values for cellular protein measured by both the Lowry and Bradford assays at densities ranging from sparse subconfluence to multilayered supraconfluence. The signal-to-noise ratio at 564 nm was approximately 1.5 with 1,000 cells per well. The sensitivity of the SRB assay compared favorably with sensitivities of several fluorescence assays and was superior to those of both the Lowry and Bradford assays and to those of 20 other visible dyes. The SRB assay provides a colorimetric end point that is nondestructive, indefinitely stable, and visible to the naked eye. It provides a sensitive measure of drug-induced cytotoxicity, is useful in quantitating clonogenicity, and is well suited to high-volume, automated drug screening. SRB fluoresces strongly with laser excitation at 488 nm and can be measured quantitatively at the single-cell level by static fluorescence cytometry.
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            Rapid and automated tetrazolium-based colorimetric assay for the detection of anti-HIV compounds.

            A rapid, sensitive and automated assay procedure was developed for the in vitro evaluation of anti-HIV agents. An HTLV-I transformed T4-cell line, MT-4, which was previously shown by Koyanagi et al. (1985) to be highly susceptible to, and permissive for, HIV infection, served as the target cell line. Inhibition of the HIV-induced cytopathic effect was used as the end point. The viability of both HIV- and mock-infected cells was assessed spectrophotometrically via the in situ reduction of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT). The procedure was optimized as to make optimal use of multichannel pipettes, microprocessor-controlled dispensing and optical density reading. The absorbance ratio of the mock-infected control to the HIV-infected samples was about 20. This allowed an accurate determination of the 50% effective doses, as demonstrated for 3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxythymidine (AZT), 2',3'-dideoxycytidine (ddCyd), dextran sulfate and heparin. The technique significantly reduced labor time as compared to the trypan blue exclusion method, and permits the evaluation of large numbers of compounds for their anti-HIV activity.
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              Current Perspectives in the Application of Medicinal Plants Against Cancer: Novel Therapeutic Agents

              Cancer is a disease characterized by uncontrolled cell growth and proliferation. It has become a major health problem in the past decades and is now the second leading cause of death globally. Although, there are different types of treatment such as chemotherapy, immune therapy, radiation, hormone therapy and targeted therapy used against cancer, they have possible side effects and significant deficiencies. This review aims to outline the benefits of medicinal plants and plant-derived products and highlight why they should be used as novel anti-cancer therapeutics. Electronic databases, including PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, Cochrane library, and MedlinePlus were searched to summarize in vitro, in vivo and clinical studies on anticancer effects of medicinal plants and their bioactive compounds up-to-date. In recent years, a number of medicinal plants have been administered to cancer patients in order to prevent and treat cancer as an alternative therapy. These plants were used because of their rich anticarcinogenic and chemoprotective potentials. In addition to these remarkable properties, these plants have less toxic anticancer, anti-tumor and anti-proliferation agents than traditional therapeutics. Nevertheless, only a small number of natural anti-tumor products including vinblastine, vincristine, podophyllotoxin, paclitaxel (Taxol) and camptothecin have been tested clinically, while vinflunine ditartrate, anhydrovinblastine, NK-611, tafluposide, paclitaxel poliglumex, combretastatins, salvicine, curcumin, indirubin, triptolide, homoharringtonine are still on trial. Consequently, more effective anticancer compounds are identified during the clinical trials; these natural products could be a key source of antitumor agents in modern anticancer therapy. It is expected that novel anticancer phytopharmaceuticals produced from medicinal plants could be effectively used in prevention and therapy for the cancers.

                Author and article information

                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                28 February 2024
                28 February 2024
                : 14
                : 4846
                [1 ]Pharmacognosy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, ( https://ror.org/03q21mh05) Kasr El Aini St, Cairo, 11562 Egypt
                [2 ]Natural Products Discovery Core, Life Sciences Institute, University of Michigan, ( https://ror.org/00jmfr291) Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA
                [3 ]Department of Medicinal Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, University of Michigan, ( https://ror.org/00jmfr291) Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA
                © The Author(s) 2024

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                : 26 May 2023
                : 21 February 2024
                Funded by: Cairo University
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                © Springer Nature Limited 2024

                jatropha variegata,jatropha spinosa,cytotoxicity,antiviral,uplc/ms,diterpenes,cancer,drug discovery,plant sciences,chemistry


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