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      Time as the Ink That Music Is Written With: A Review of Internal Clock Models and Their Explanatory Power in Audiovisual Perception Translated title: Zeit als Grundlage der Musik: Ein Überblick zu Modellen innerer Uhren und deren Erklärungswert für die audiovisuelle Wahrnehmung


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          The current review addresses two internal clock models that have dominated discussions in timing research for the last decades. More specifically, it discusses whether the central or the intrinsic clock model better describes the fluctuations in subjective time. Identifying the timing mechanism is critical to explain and predict timing behaviours in various audiovisual contexts. Music stands out for its prominence in real life scenarios along with its great potential to alter subjective time. An emphasis on how music as a complex dynamic auditory signal affects timing accuracy led us to examine the behavioural and neuropsychological evidence that supports either clock model. In addition to the timing mechanisms, an overview of internal and external variables, such as attention and emotions as well as the classic experimental paradigms is provided, in order to examine how the mechanisms function in response to changes occurring particularly during music experiences. Neither model can explain the effects of music on subjective timing entirely: The intrinsic model applies primarily to subsecond timing, whereas the central model applies to the suprasecond range. In order to explain time experiences in music, one has to consider the target intervals as well as the contextual factors mentioned above. Further research is needed to reconcile the gap between theories, and suggestions for future empirical studies are outlined.

          Translated abstract

          Dieser Überblick befasst sich mit zwei Modellen der inneren Uhr, die in den letzten Jahrzehnten die Diskussion in der Forschung zur Zeitwahrnehmung und -gestaltung bestimmt haben. Insbesondere wird diskutiert, ob das zentrale oder das intrinsische Uhrenmodell Schwankungen der subjektiven Zeit besser erklärt. Dabei ist das Erkennen des zugrundeliegenden Mechanismus' entscheidend, um das Zeiterleben im Nachhinein zu erklären oder in verschiedenen audiovisuellen Kontexten vorherzusagen. Musik zeichnet sich durch ihre Bedeutung in realen Szenarien sowie durch ihr großes Potenzial zur Veränderung des subjektiven Zeiterlebens aus. Musik kann als komplexes dynamisches Audiosignal die zeitliche Genauigkeit beeinflussen. Dies ist der Hintergrund, verhaltensbezogene und neuropsychologische Belege zu diskutieren, die eines der Uhrenmodelle oder beide unterstützen. Neben den Zeitmechanismen wird ein Überblick auf interne und externe Variablen wie Aufmerksamkeit und Emotion, sowie auf klassische experimentelle Paradigmen gegeben. Dadurch wird dargelegt, welche Rolle den Mechanismen zukommt hinsichtlich der Reaktion auf Änderungen im Stimulusmaterial, insbesondere beim Erleben von Musik. Im Ergebnis kann kein Modell die Auswirkungen von Musik auf das subjektive Zeiterleben vollständig erklären. Während das intrinsische Modell in erster Linie das Zeiterleben für sehr kurze Dauern unterhalb einer Sekunde zu erklären vermag, bietet das zentrale Modell einen höheren Erklärungswert für den Suprasekundenbereich, das heißt für das Timing von Sekunden bis Minuten. Um Zeiterfahrungen in der Musik zu erklären, müssen die Zielintervalle sowie die oben genannten Kontextfaktoren berücksichtigt werden. Weitere Forschungen sind erforderlich, um die Kluft zwischen den Theorien zu schließen, wobei Vorschläge für künftige empirische Studien skizziert werden.

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          Most cited references99

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                Author and article information

                Jahrb Musik
                Jahrbuch Musikpsychologie
                Jahrb. Musik.
                01 July 2020
                : 29 ( titleID: Musikpsychologie — Musik im audiovisuellen Kontext )
                : e67
                [a ]Institut für Systematische Musikwissenschaft, Universität Hamburg , Hamburg, Germany
                Author notes
                [* ]Institut für Systematische Musikwissenschaft, Universität Hamburg, Neue Rabenstr. 13, 20354 Hamburg, Germany. xinyue.wang@ 123456uni-hamburg.de

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) 4.0 License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 30 September 2019
                : 08 May 2020
                Self URI (journal-page): https://journals.psychopen.eu/
                Forschungsberichte zum Themenschwerpunkt

                Scalar Expectancy Theory,audiovisuelles Zeiterleben,Musikwahrnehmung,Dynamic Attending Theory,Innere Uhrenmodelle,audiovisual timing,music perception,internal clock models


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