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      International Commission on Trichinellosis: Recommendations on the use of serological tests for the detection of Trichinella infection in animals and humans

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          Abstract

          Serological methods are widely used for detection of infections in animals and humans. The recommendations provided here take into account the best current methods for the serological detection of Trichinella infection. They are based on current scientific information including unpublished data from laboratories with relevant expertise in this field. These recommendations represent the official position of the International Commission on Trichinellosis (ICT) regarding acceptable methods for the use and interpretation of serology testing for Trichinella infection in animals and humans.

          The ICT does not recommend use of serological methods for testing individual carcasses of animals at slaughter for assuring food safety. For detection of human infections, for epidemiological studies in animals and humans, and for monitoring Trichinella infection in swine, the ICT recommends ELISA using excretory/secretory (ES) antigens. These antigens are obtained from the in-vitro maintenance of Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae and are recognized by sera from hosts infected by all Trichinella species and genotypes identified thus far. In most situations, positive results obtained by ELISA should be confirmed by western blot. Serological assays should be properly standardized and validated for their intended purpose. The components of the test that are critical for maintaining suitable performance should be identified and appropriately checked. Users of commercial tests should verify that the test has been adequately evaluated by an independent body. Serology is useful for detecting Trichinella in animals and humans but its limitations need to be taken into account when interpreting the results.

          Highlights

          • Trichinella serology is not recommended for testing individual animals to assure food safety.

          • Serological assays should be standardized and validated for their intended purpose.

          • ELISA using excretory/secretory antigens is the test recommended by the ICT.

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          Most cited references 46

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          International Commission on Trichinellosis: recommendations on methods for the control of Trichinella in domestic and wild animals intended for human consumption.

          This document provides a uniform set of recommendations for the control of Trichinella at all levels (on the farm, at slaughter and in processed meats). These recommendations are based on the best scientific information available and represent the official position of the International Commission on Trichinellosis regarding acceptable control methods. These recommendations are subject to change as new scientific information becomes available.
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            Phylogenomic and biogeographic reconstruction of the Trichinella complex

            Trichinellosis is a globally important food-borne parasitic disease of humans caused by roundworms of the Trichinella complex. Extensive biological diversity is reflected in substantial ecological and genetic variability within and among Trichinella taxa, and major controversy surrounds the systematics of this complex. Here we report the sequencing and assembly of 16 draft genomes representing all 12 recognized Trichinella species and genotypes, define protein-coding gene sets and assess genetic differences among these taxa. Using thousands of shared single-copy orthologous gene sequences, we fully reconstruct, for the first time, a phylogeny and biogeography for the Trichinella complex, and show that encapsulated and non-encapsulated Trichinella taxa diverged from their most recent common ancestor ∼21 million years ago (mya), with taxon diversifications commencing ∼10−7 mya.
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              How does Trichinella spiralis make itself at home?

              The nurse cell-parasite complex of Trichinella spiralis is unlike anything else in Nature. It is derived from a normal portion of striated skeletal muscle cell and develops in a matter of 15 to 20 days after the larva invades that cell type. What are the molecular mechanisms at work that result in this unique relationship? Here, Dickson Despommier presents a hypothesis to account for its formation, in which secreted tyvelosylated proteins of the larva play a central role. These proteins are always present in the intracellular niche of the larva from Day 7 after infection and may be responsible for redirecting host genomic expression, leading to nurse cell formation.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Food Waterborne Parasitol
                Food Waterborne Parasitol
                Food and Waterborne Parasitology
                Elsevier
                2405-6766
                05 February 2019
                March 2019
                05 February 2019
                : 14
                Affiliations
                [a ]Department of Translational Research, N.T.M.S. Università di Pisa, Via Roma 55, 56126 Pisa, Italy
                [b ]Department of Infectious Diseases, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome, Italy
                [c ]USDA, ARS, ANRI, APDL, BARC-East, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author. fabrizio.bruschi@ 123456med.unipi.it
                Article
                S2405-6766(18)30014-3 e00032
                10.1016/j.fawpar.2018.e00032
                7034015
                © 2019 The Authors

                This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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