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      Risk factors associated with postoperative pain after ophthalmic surgery: a prospective study

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          Risk factors associated with postoperative pain intensity and duration, as well as consumption of analgesics after ophthalmic surgery are poorly understood.


          A prospective study was conducted among adults (N=226) who underwent eye surgery at the University Hospital Split, Croatia. A day before the surgery, the patients filled out questionnaires assessing personality, anxiety, pain catastrophizing, sociodemographics and were given details about the procedure, anesthesia, and analgesia for each postoperative day. All scales were previously used for the Croatian population. The intensity of pain was measured using a numerical rating scale from 0 to 10, where 0 was no pain and 10 was the worst imaginable pain. The intensity of pain was measured before the surgery and then 1 hour, 3 hours, 6 hours, and 24 hours after surgery, and then once a day until discharge from the hospital. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed.


          A multivariate analysis indicated that independent predictors of average pain intensity after the surgery were: absence of premedication before surgery, surgery in general anesthesia, higher pain intensity before surgery and pain catastrophizing level. Independent predictors of postoperative pain duration were intensity of pain before surgery, type of anesthesia, and self-assessment of health. Independent predictors of pain intensity ≥5 during the first 6 hours after the procedure were the type of procedure, self-assessment of health, premedication, and the level of pain catastrophizing.


          Awareness about independent predictors associated with average postoperative pain intensity, postoperative pain duration, and occurrence of intensive pain after surgery may help health workers to improve postoperative pain management in ophthalmic surgery.

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          Most cited references 25

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          Theoretical perspectives on the relation between catastrophizing and pain.

          The tendency to "catastrophize" during painful stimulation contributes to more intense pain experience and increased emotional distress. Catastrophizing has been broadly conceived as an exaggerated negative "mental set" brought to bear during painful experiences. Although findings have been consistent in showing a relation between catastrophizing and pain, research in this area has proceeded in the relative absence of a guiding theoretical framework. This article reviews the literature on the relation between catastrophizing and pain and examines the relative strengths and limitations of different theoretical models that could be advanced to account for the pattern of available findings. The article evaluates the explanatory power of a schema activation model, an appraisal model, an attention model, and a communal coping model of pain perception. It is suggested that catastrophizing might best be viewed from the perspective of hierarchical levels of analysis, where social factors and social goals may play a role in the development and maintenance of catastrophizing, whereas appraisal-related processes may point to the mechanisms that link catastrophizing to pain experience. Directions for future research are suggested.
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            Predictors of postoperative pain and analgesic consumption: a qualitative systematic review.

            Pain is a subjective and multidimensional experience that is often inadequately managed in clinical practice. Effective control of postoperative pain is important after anesthesia and surgery. A systematic review was conducted to identify the independent predictive factors for postoperative pain and analgesic consumption. The authors identified 48 eligible studies with 23,037 patients included in the final analysis. Preoperative pain, anxiety, age, and type of surgery were four significant predictors for postoperative pain. Type of surgery, age, and psychological distress were the significant predictors for analgesic consumption. Gender was not found to be a consistent predictor as traditionally believed. Early identification of the predictors in patients at risk of postoperative pain will allow more effective intervention and better management. The coefficient of determination of the predictive models was less than 54%. More vigorous studies with robust statistics and validated designs are needed to investigate this field of interest.
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              The measurement of postoperative pain: a comparison of intensity scales in younger and older surgical patients.

              The psychometric properties of pain intensity scales for the assessment of postoperative pain across the adult lifespan have not been reported. The objective of this study was to compare the feasibility and validity of the Numeric Rating Scale (NRS), Verbal Descriptor Scale (VDS), and Visual Analog Scale (horizontal (VAS-H) and vertical (VAS-V) line orientation) for the assessment of pain intensity in younger and older surgical patients. At 24h following surgery, 504 patients, who were receiving i.v. morphine via patient-controlled analgesia, completed the pain intensity measures and the McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) in a randomized order. They were asked which scale was easiest to complete, the most accurate measure, and which they would most prefer to complete in the future, as an index of face validity. The amount of opioid self-administered was recorded. Age differences in postoperative pain intensity were not found. However, elderly patients obtained lower MPQ scores and self-administered less morphine than younger people. Psychometric analyses suggested that the NRS was the preferred pain intensity scale. It had low error rates, and higher face, convergent, divergent and criterion validity than the other scales. Most importantly, its properties were not age-related. The VDS also had a favourable profile with low error rates and good face, convergent and criterion validity. Finally, difficulties with VAS use among the elderly were identified, including high rates of unscorable data and low face validity. Its use with elderly postoperative patients should be discouraged.

                Author and article information

                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                22 January 2016
                : 12
                : 93-102
                [1 ]Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital Split, Split, Croatia
                [2 ]Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital Split, Split, Croatia
                [3 ]Laboratory for Pain Research, University of Split School of Medicine, Split, Croatia
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Livia Puljak, Laboratory for Pain Research, University of Split School of Medicine, Soltanska 2, 21000 Split, Croatia, Tel +385 21 557 807, Fax +385 21 557 811, Email livia@ 123456mefst.hr

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                © 2016 Lesin et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Original Research


                postoperative pain, factors, personality, psychology, affect, pain catastrophizing, sociodemographics


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