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      Kinesiophobia and its relation to pain characteristics and cognitive affective variables in older adults with chronic pain

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          Abstract

          Background

          The contribution of kinesiophobia (fear of movement) to the pain experience among older adults has been poorly evaluated. The aim of this study was to study prevalence at baseline, development over a 12-month period and cognitive-affective variables of kinesiophobia in a population-based sample of older adults with chronic pain.

          Methods

          The study included 433 older adults (+65 years) with chronic pain (mean age 74.8 years) randomly selected using a Swedish register of inhabitants. Kinesiophobia was measured at baseline and 12-month follow-up with the 11-item version of the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia (TSK-11). Associations of demographic-, cognitive affective - and pain-related variables to kinesiophobia were analysed with linear regression analyses.

          Results

          The mean level of kinesiophobia was low. Worsening and recovering from kinesiophobia occurred over time, but the mean level of kinesiophobia remained unchanged ( p = 0.972). High levels of kinesiophobia (TSK ≥35) were found among frailer and older adults predominately living in care homes, but not dependent on sex. Poor self-perceived health (OR = 8.84) and high pain intensity (OR = 1.22) were significantly associated with kinesiophobia.

          Conclusion

          Results indicate that potential interventions regarding kinesiophobia among older adults should aim to decrease pain intensity and strengthen health beliefs.

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          Most cited references 25

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          Daily activity energy expenditure and mortality among older adults.

          Exercise is associated with mortality benefits but simply expending energy through any activity in an individual's free-living environment may confer survival advantages. To determine whether free-living activity energy expenditure is associated with all-cause mortality among older adults. Free-living activity energy expenditure was assessed in 302 high-functioning, community-dwelling older adults (aged 70-82 years). Total energy expenditure was assessed over 2 weeks using doubly labeled water. Resting metabolic rate was measured using indirect calorimetry and the thermic effect of meals was estimated at 10% of total energy expenditure. Free-living activity energy expenditure was calculated as: (total energy expenditure x 0.90) - resting metabolic rate. Participants were followed up over a mean of 6.15 years (1998-2006). Free-living activity energy expenditure (3 tertiles: low, 770 kcal/d) and all-cause mortality. Fifty-five participants (18.2%) died during follow-up. As a continuous risk factor, an SD increase in free-living activity energy expenditure (287 kcal/d) was associated with a 32% lower risk of mortality after adjusting for age, sex, race, study site, weight, height, percentage of body fat, and sleep duration (hazard ratio, 0.68; 95% confidence interval, 0.48-0.96). Using the same adjustments, individuals in the highest tertile of free-living activity energy expenditure were at a significantly lower mortality risk compared with the lowest tertile (hazard ratio, 0.31; 95% confidence interval, 0.14-0.69). Absolute risk of death was 12.1% in the highest tertile of activity energy expenditure vs 24.7% in the lowest tertile; absolute risks were similar to these for tertiles of physical activity level. The effect of free-living activity energy expenditure changed little after further adjustment for self-rated health, education, prevalent health conditions, and smoking behavior. According to self-reports, individuals expending higher levels of free-living activity energy were more likely to work for pay (P = .004) and climb stairs (P = .01) but self-reported high-intensity exercise, walking for exercise, walking other than for exercise, volunteering, and caregiving did not differ significantly across the activity energy expenditure tertiles. Objectively measured free-living activity energy expenditure was strongly associated with lower risk of mortality in healthy older adults. Simply expending energy through any activity may influence survival in older adults.
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            Psychometric properties of the TSK-11: a shortened version of the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia.

            The Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia (TSK) is one of the most frequently employed measures for assessing pain-related fear in back pain patients. Despite its widespread use, there is relatively little data to support the psychometric properties of the English version of this scale. This study investigated the psychometric properties of the English version of the TSK in a sample of chronic low back pain patients. Item analysis revealed that four items possessed low item total correlations (4, 8, 12, 16) and four items had response trends that deviated from a pattern of normal distribution (4, 9, 12, 14). Consequently, we tested the psychometric properties of a shorter version of the TSK (TSK-11), having excluded the six psychometrically poor items. The psychometric properties of this measure were compared to those of the original TSK. Both measures demonstrated good internal consistency (TSK: alpha=0.76; TSK-11: alpha=0.79), test-retest reliability (TSK: ICC=0.82, SEM=3.16; TSK-11: ICC=0.81, SEM=2.54), responsiveness (TSK: SRM=-1.19; TSK-11: SRM=-1.11), concurrent validity and predictive validity. In respect of specific cut-off scores, a reduction of at least four points on both measures maximised the likelihood of correctly identifying an important reduction in fear of movement. Overall, the TSK-11 possessed similar psychometric properties to the original TSK and offered the advantage of brevity. Further research is warranted to investigate the utility of the new instrument and the cut-off scores in a wider group of chronic pain patients in different clinical settings.
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              The role of fear of movement/(re)injury in pain disability.

              It is now well established that in chronic low back pain, there is no direct relationship between impairments, pain, and disability. From a cognitive-behavioral perspective, pain disability is not only influenced by the organic pathology, but also by cognitive-perceptual, psychophysiological, and motoric-environmental factors. This paper focuses on the role of specific beliefs that are associated with avoidance of activities. These beliefs are related to fear of movement and physical activity, which is (wrongfully) assumed to cause (re)injury. Two studies are presented, of which the first examines the factor structure of the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia (TSK), a recently developed questionnaire that is aimed at quantifying fear of movement/(re)injury. In the second study, the value of fear of movement/(re)injury in predicting disability levels is analyzed, when the biomedical status of the patient and current pain intensity levels are controlled for. In addition, the determinants of fear of movement/(re)injury are examined. The discussion focuses on the clinical relevance of the fear-avoidance model in relation to risk assessment, assessment of functional capacity, and secondary prevention.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                +46 40 391317 , caroline.larsson@med.lu.se
                eva.ekvall-hansson@med.lu.se
                kristina.sundquist@med.lu.se
                ulf.jakobsson@med.lu.se
                Journal
                BMC Geriatr
                BMC Geriatr
                BMC Geriatrics
                BioMed Central (London )
                1471-2318
                7 July 2016
                7 July 2016
                2016
                : 16
                Affiliations
                [ ]Center for Primary Health Care Research, Faculty of Medicine, Clinical Research Centre (CRC), Lund University, Skåne University Hospital, Building 28, floor 11, Jan Waldenströms gata 35, SE-205 02 Malmö, Sweden
                [ ]Department of Health Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden
                [ ]Stanford Prevention Research Center, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA USA
                Article
                302
                10.1186/s12877-016-0302-6
                4936054
                27387557
                © The Author(s). 2016

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Funding
                Funded by: King Gustav V and Queen Victoria’s Foundation of Freemasons
                Funded by: Ragnhild and Einar Lundström’s Foundation
                Funded by: Gyllenstiernska Krapperup Foundation
                Categories
                Research Article
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2016

                Geriatric medicine

                older adults, chronic pain, prevalence, kinesiophobia

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