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      Malignant Epithelioid Soft Tissue Tumours- A Pathologist's Perspective With Review of Literature

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          Abstract

          Background

          Soft tissue tumours with epithelioid morphology have many differential diagnoses, which include epithelioid sarcoma, malignant extrarenal rhabdoid tumour, epithelioid malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour, epithelioid leiomyosarcoma, epithelioid angiosarcoma and sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma. There are other rare entities also. They often express characteristic patterns of immunohistochemical markers that can be used to identify these tumours.

          Materials and methods

          This retrospective study comprises 22 cases of malignant soft tissue tumours with epithelioid differentiation diagnosed over a period of four years. Findings regarding clinical presentation, cytological findings, histopathological findings and immunohistochemical profile of the tumours were noted and analyzed.

          Results

          A total of 22 cases were included in the study including five cases of epithelioid sarcoma (conventional and proximal), three cases of epithelioid angiosarcoma and epithelioid myxofibrosarcoma, two cases of epithelioid malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour, epithelioid gastrointestinal stromal tumour and clear cell sarcoma each, one case of epithelioid leiomyosarcoma, sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma, malignant extrarenal rhabdoid tumour, monophasic synovial sarcoma and malignant and malignant perivascular epithelioid cell tumour each.

          Conclusion

          Pathologists should be aware of the various differential diagnoses of soft tissue tumours with epithelioid morphology. Over and above the clinical findings and morphological features, ancillary methods like immunohistochemistry help to arrive at a definitive diagnosis in most cases.

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          Most cited references24

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          Perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasms of soft tissue and gynecologic origin: a clinicopathologic study of 26 cases and review of the literature.

          PEComas, occasionally associated with the tuberous sclerosis complex, are defined by the presence of perivascular epithelioid cells that coexpress muscle and melanocytic markers. This family of tumors includes angiomyolipoma (AML), clear cell sugar tumor of the lung (CCST), lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM), and very rare tumors in other locations. Because non-AML/non-LAM PEComas are extremely rare and their natural history and prognostic features undefined, we present our experience with 26 PEComas of soft tissue and the gynecologic tract, the largest series to date. We also performed a detailed review of the literature, with special attention to features predictive of clinical behavior. All PEComas exclusive of AML and LAM were retrieved from our consultation files. Immunohistochemistry for pan-cytokeratin (CK), S-100 protein, smooth muscle actins (SMA), desmin, vimentin, HMB45, Melan-A, microphthalmia transcription factor (MiTF), TFE3, CD117, and CD34 was performed. Clinical follow-up information was obtained. Fisher's exact test was performed. The median patient age was 46 years (range, 15-97 years); there was a marked female predominance (22 females, 4 males). Sites of involvement included the omentum or mesentery (6 cases), uterus (4 cases), pelvic soft tissues (3 cases), abdominal wall (2 cases), uterine cervix (2 cases), and vagina, retroperitoneum, thigh, falciform ligament, scalp, broad ligament, forearm, shoulder, and neck (1 case each). The tumors ranged from 1.6 to 29 cm in size (median, 7.8 cm). Tumors were epithelioid (N = 9), spindled (N = 7), or mixed (N = 10). Multinucleated giant cells were present in 18 cases. High nuclear grade was noted in 10 cases, high cellularity in 7 cases, necrosis in 8 cases, and vascular invasion in 3 cases. Mitotic activity was 0 to 50 mitotic figures (MF)/50 high power fields (HPF) (median, 0 MF/50 HPF) with atypical MF in 6 cases. IHC results were: SMA (20/25), desmin (8/22), HMB45 (22/24), Melan-A (13/18), MITF (9/18), S-100 protein (8/24), CK (3/23), vimentin (12/14), TFE3 (5/17), c-kit (1/20), and CD34 (0/7). Clinical follow-up (24 of 26 patients, 92%; median, 30 months; range, 10-84 months) showed 3 local recurrences and 5 distant metastases. At last available clinical follow-up, 2 patients (8%) were dead of disease, 4 patients (17%) were alive with metastatic or unresectable local disease, and 18 patients (75%) were alive with no evidence of disease. No patient in our series had a history of tuberous sclerosis complex. Recurrence and/or metastasis was strongly associated tumor size > median size (8 cm), mitotic activity greater than 1/50 HPF, and necrosis. We conclude that PEComas of soft tissue and gynecologic origin may be classified as "benign," "of uncertain malignant potential," or "malignant." Small PEComas without any worrisome histologic features are most likely benign. PEComas with nuclear pleomorphism alone ("symplastic") and large PEComas without other worrisome features have uncertain malignant potential. PEComas with two or more worrisome histologic features should be considered malignant. Occasional PEComas express unusual markers, such as S-100 protein, desmin, and rarely CK. The role of TFE3 in PEComas should be further studied.
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            PEComas: the past, the present and the future

            The perivascular epithelioid cell (PEC) is a cell type constantly present in a group of tumors called PEComas. PEC expresses myogenic and melanocytic markers, such as HMB45 and actin. Recently, recurrent chromosomal alterations have been demonstrated in PEC. At present, PEComa is a widely accepted entity. In the past 10 years, the use of this term has allowed to report and describe numerous cases permitting to start highlighting the biology of this group of lesions. PEComas are related to the genetic alterations of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), an autosomal dominant genetic disease due to losses of TSC1 (9q34) or TSC2 (16p13.3) genes which seem to have a role in the regulation of the Rheb/mTOR/p70S6K pathway. There are some open questions about PEComas regarding its histogenesis, the definition of epithelioid angiomyolipoma and the identification of the histological criteria of malignancy. An innovative therapeutic trial using rapamycin is under way for tumors occurring in TSC such as renal angiomyolipoma and lymphangioleiomyomatosis. Its success could provide the rationale for the use of the same drug in other lesions composed of PECs, especially in the malignant ones.
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              Epitheloid sarcoma. A sarcoma simulating a granuloma or a carcinoma.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Cureus
                Cureus
                2168-8184
                Cureus
                Cureus (Palo Alto (CA) )
                2168-8184
                24 December 2020
                December 2020
                : 12
                : 12
                : e12263
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Pathology, North Eastern Indira Gandhi Regional Institute of Health and Medical Sciences, Shillong, IND
                [2 ] Pathology, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Puducherry, IND
                Author notes
                Bheemanathi Hanuman Srinivas srinivas.bh08@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                10.7759/cureus.12263
                7834554
                06612107-b1d5-4e64-a8e0-1f7a5f6da448
                Copyright © 2020, Dey et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                History
                : 24 December 2020
                Categories
                Pathology
                Oncology

                sarcoma,immunohistochemistry,pathologists
                sarcoma, immunohistochemistry, pathologists

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