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      Aquaporin-3 in Cancer

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          Abstract

          Increasing evidence suggests that the water/glycerol channel aquaporin-3 (AQP3) plays a pivotal role in cancer metastasis. AQP3 knockout mice were resistant to skin tumor formation and overexpression correlated with metastasis and poor prognosis in patients with breast or gastric cancer. In cultured cancer cells, increased AQP3 expression stimulated several intracellular signaling pathways and resulted in increased cell proliferation, migration, and invasion as well as aggravation of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Besides AQP facilitated water transport at the leading edge of migrating cells, AQP3 signaling mechanisms are beginning to be unraveled. Here, we give a thorough review of current knowledge regarding AQP3 expression in cancer and how AQP3 contributes to cancer progression via signaling that modulates cellular mechanisms. This review article will expand our understanding of the known pathophysiological findings regarding AQP3 in cancer.

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          Most cited references 106

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          Aquaporins in Plants.

          Aquaporins are membrane channels that facilitate the transport of water and small neutral molecules across biological membranes of most living organisms. In plants, aquaporins occur as multiple isoforms reflecting a high diversity of cellular localizations, transport selectivity, and regulation properties. Plant aquaporins are localized in the plasma membrane, endoplasmic reticulum, vacuoles, plastids and, in some species, in membrane compartments interacting with symbiotic organisms. Plant aquaporins can transport various physiological substrates in addition to water. Of particular relevance for plants is the transport of dissolved gases such as carbon dioxide and ammonia or metalloids such as boron and silicon. Structure-function studies are developed to address the molecular and cellular mechanisms of plant aquaporin gating and subcellular trafficking. Phosphorylation plays a central role in these two processes. These mechanisms allow aquaporin regulation in response to signaling intermediates such as cytosolic pH and calcium, and reactive oxygen species. Combined genetic and physiological approaches are now integrating this knowledge, showing that aquaporins play key roles in hydraulic regulation in roots and leaves, during drought but also in response to stimuli as diverse as flooding, nutrient availability, temperature, or light. A general hydraulic control of plant tissue expansion by aquaporins is emerging, and their role in key developmental processes (seed germination, emergence of lateral roots) has been established. Plants with genetically altered aquaporin functions are now tested for their ability to improve plant tolerance to stresses. In conclusion, research on aquaporins delineates ever expanding fields in plant integrative biology thereby establishing their crucial role in plants.
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            Appearance of Water Channels in Xenopus Oocytes Expressing Red Cell CHIP28 Protein

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              Aquaporins and cell migration.

              Aquaporin (AQP) water channels are expressed primarily in cell plasma membranes. In this paper, we review recent evidence that AQPs facilitate cell migration. AQP-dependent cell migration has been found in a variety of cell types in vitro and in mice in vivo. AQP1 deletion reduces endothelial cell migration, limiting tumor angiogenesis and growth. AQP4 deletion slows the migration of reactive astrocytes, impairing glial scarring after brain stab injury. AQP1-expressing tumor cells have enhanced metastatic potential and local infiltration. Impaired cell migration has also been seen in AQP1-deficient proximal tubule epithelial cells, and AQP3-deficient corneal epithelial cells, enterocytes, and skin keratinocytes. The mechanisms by which AQPs enhance cell migration are under investigation. We propose that, as a consequence of actin polymerization/depolymerization and transmembrane ionic fluxes, the cytoplasm adjacent to the leading edge of migrating cells undergoes rapid changes in osmolality. AQPs could thus facilitate osmotic water flow across the plasma membrane in cell protrusions that form during migration. AQP-dependent cell migration has potentially broad implications in angiogenesis, tumor metastasis, wound healing, glial scarring, and other events requiring rapid, directed cell movement. AQP inhibitors may thus have therapeutic potential in modulating these events, such as slowing tumor growth and spread, and reducing glial scarring after injury to allow neuronal regeneration.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Mol Sci
                Int J Mol Sci
                ijms
                International Journal of Molecular Sciences
                MDPI
                1422-0067
                07 October 2017
                October 2017
                : 18
                : 10
                Affiliations
                Department of Clinical Medicine, Bartholins Allé 6, Aarhus University, 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark; sawmarlar@ 123456gmail.com (S.M.); helenehalkjaer@ 123456clin.au.dk (H.H.J.); frederic.login@ 123456clin.au.dk (F.H.L.)
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: nejsum@ 123456clin.au.dk ; Tel.: +45-211-63121
                Article
                ijms-18-02106
                10.3390/ijms18102106
                5666788
                28991174
                © 2017 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Review

                Molecular biology

                aquaporin-3, cancer cell migration, metastasis, aqp3

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