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      Rapid and Long-Lasting Increase in Galanin mRNA Levels in Rat Adrenal Medulla following Insulin-Induced Reflex Splanchnic Nerve Stimulation

      ,

      Neuroendocrinology

      S. Karger AG

      Galanin, Adrenal gland, Splanchnic nerve, Insulin, Gene regulation, In situ hybridization

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          Abstract

          Expression of the neuropeptide galanin in the adrenal gland is rapidly induced by reflex stimulation of the splanchnic nerve following insulin-induced hypoglycemia. Here, we examine the cellular localization and mechanism of galanin mRNA upregulation in the adrenal gland after insulin administration, by Northern blot and in situ histochemical hybridization analysis. A 5- to 16-fold increase in galanin mRNA levels, measured by Northern blot hybridization using a rat galanin cRNA probe, was observed after insulin-induced hypoglycemia. An increase in galanin mRNA levels could be detected as early as two hours after administration of a single dose (10 U/kg) of insulin (Iletin II), consistent with the increase in galanin peptide levels in the adrenal gland within 24 h of insulin shock. Insulin-induced galanin mRNA upregulation was confined to the rat adrenal: neither hypothalamic nor pituitary levels of GAL mRNA were altered by insulin treatment. Adrenal galanin mRNA levels were maximally increased by 4 h, remained maximally elevated for at least 48 h, and had returned to baseline 6 days after insulin administration. In situ hybridization analysis localized galanin mRNA induction to scattered groups of chromaffin cells throughout the medulla. These data demonstrate that regulation of GAL biosynthesis in the adrenal medulla occurs at a pretranslational level, and in a subpopulation of chromaffin cells. Rapid and robust upregulation of galanin biosynthesis in chromaffin cells upon insulin-induced splanchnic nerve stimulation suggests a hormonal or paracrine role for galanin in the adrenomedullary response to hypoglycemic shock.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          NEN
          Neuroendocrinology
          10.1159/issn.0028-3835
          Neuroendocrinology
          S. Karger AG
          0028-3835
          1423-0194
          1995
          1995
          09 April 2008
          : 62
          : 6
          : 611-618
          Affiliations
          Section on Molecular Neuroscience, Laboratory of Cell Biology, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md., USA
          Article
          127057 Neuroendocrinology 1995;62:611–618
          10.1159/000127057
          8751287
          © 1995 S. Karger AG, Basel

          Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

          Page count
          Pages: 8
          Categories
          Corticotropin and Adrenal Regulation

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