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      ADP-Ribose Activates the TRPM2 Channel from the Sea Anemone Nematostella vectensis Independently of the NUDT9H Domain

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          Abstract

          The human redox-sensitive Transient receptor potential melastatin type 2 ( hTRPM2) channel contains the C-terminal Nudix hydrolase domain NUDT9H which most likely binds ADP-ribose. During oxidative stress, the intracellular release of ADP-ribose triggers the activation of hTRPM2. The TRPM2 orthologue from Nematostella vectensis ( nv) is also stimulated by ADP-ribose but not by the oxidant hydrogen peroxide. For further clarification of the structure-function relationships of these two distantly related channel orthologues, we performed whole-cell as well as single channel patch-clamp recordings, Ca 2+-imaging and Western blot analysis after heterologous expression of wild-type and mutated channels in HEK-293 cells. We demonstrate that the removal of the entire NUDT9H domain does not disturb the response of nvTRPM2 to ADP-ribose. The deletion, however, created channels that were activated by hydrogen peroxide, as did mutations within the NUDT9H domain of nvTRPM2 that presumably suppress its enzymatic function. The same findings were obtained with the nvTRPM2 channel when the NUDT9H domain was replaced by the corresponding sequences of the original hNUDT9 enzyme. Whenever the enzyme domain was mutated to presumably inactive variants, channel activation by hydrogen peroxide could be achieved. Moreover, we found strong evidences for ADPRase activity of the isolated NUDT9H domain of nvTRPM2 in co-expression experiments with the C-terminally truncated nvTRPM2 channel. Thus, there is a clear correlation between the loss of enzymatic activity and the capability of nvTRPM2 to respond to oxidative stress. In striking contrast, the channel function of the hTRPM2 orthologue, in particular its sensitivity to ADP-ribose, was abrogated by already small changes of the NUDT9H domain. These findings establish nvTRPM2 as a channel gated by ADP-ribose through a novel mechanism. We conclude that the endogenous NUDT9H domain does not directly affect ADP-ribose-dependent gating of the nvTRPM2 channel; instead it exerts an independent catalytic function which possibly controls the intracellular availability of ADP-ribose.

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          Most cited references 33

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          Sea anemone genome reveals ancestral eumetazoan gene repertoire and genomic organization.

          Sea anemones are seemingly primitive animals that, along with corals, jellyfish, and hydras, constitute the oldest eumetazoan phylum, the Cnidaria. Here, we report a comparative analysis of the draft genome of an emerging cnidarian model, the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis. The sea anemone genome is complex, with a gene repertoire, exon-intron structure, and large-scale gene linkage more similar to vertebrates than to flies or nematodes, implying that the genome of the eumetazoan ancestor was similarly complex. Nearly one-fifth of the inferred genes of the ancestor are eumetazoan novelties, which are enriched for animal functions like cell signaling, adhesion, and synaptic transmission. Analysis of diverse pathways suggests that these gene "inventions" along the lineage leading to animals were likely already well integrated with preexisting eukaryotic genes in the eumetazoan progenitor.
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            ADP-ribose gating of the calcium-permeable LTRPC2 channel revealed by Nudix motif homology.

            Free ADP-ribose (ADPR), a product of NAD hydrolysis and a breakdown product of the calcium-release second messenger cyclic ADPR (cADPR), has no defined role as an intracellular signalling molecule in vertebrate systems. Here we show that a 350-amino-acid protein (designated NUDT9) and a homologous domain (NUDT9 homology domain) near the carboxy terminus of the LTRPC2/TrpC7 putative cation channel both function as specific ADPR pyrophosphatases. Whole-cell and single-channel analysis of HEK-293 cells expressing LTRPC2 show that LTRPC2 functions as a calcium-permeable cation channel that is specifically gated by free ADPR. The expression of native LTRPC2 transcripts is detectable in many tissues including the U937 monocyte cell line, in which ADPR induces large cation currents (designated IADPR) that closely match those mediated by recombinant LTRPC2. These results indicate that intracellular ADPR regulates calcium entry into cells that express LTRPC2.
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              Immunocyte Ca2+ influx system mediated by LTRPC2.

              We characterized an activation mechanism of the human LTRPC2 protein, a member of the transient receptor potential family of ion channels, and demonstrated that LTRPC2 mediates Ca2+ influx into immunocytes. Intracellular pyrimidine nucleotides, adenosine 5'-diphosphoribose (ADPR), and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), directly activated LTRPC2, which functioned as a Ca2+-permeable nonselective cation channel and enabled Ca2+ influx into cells. This activation was suppressed by intracellular adenosine triphosphate. These results reveal that ADPR and NAD act as intracellular messengers and may have an important role in Ca2+ influx by activating LTRPC2 in immunocytes.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                22 June 2016
                2016
                : 11
                : 6
                Affiliations
                Institute of Physiology, Medical Faculty, RWTH Aachen, D-52057 Aachen, Germany
                University of South Florida, UNITED STATES
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Conceived and designed the experiments: FK CK. Performed the experiments: FK CK MW DH. Analyzed the data: FK CK MW. Wrote the paper: FK AL.

                Article
                PONE-D-16-11171
                10.1371/journal.pone.0158060
                4917252
                27333281
                © 2016 Kühn et al

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 8, Tables: 0, Pages: 21
                Product
                Funding
                Funded by: funder-id http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100001659, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft;
                Award ID: KU 2271/4-1
                Award Recipient :
                The study was supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft ( www.dfg.de), grant number: KU 2271/4-1 to FK. The funder had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
                Categories
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                Molecular Biology
                Molecular Biology Techniques
                Sequencing Techniques
                Sequence Analysis
                Sequence Motif Analysis
                Research and Analysis Methods
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                Neuroimaging
                Calcium Imaging
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