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      Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin in Children and Adolescents

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          Abstract

          Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is a circulating glycoprotein that transports testosterone and other steroids in the blood. Interest in SHBG has escalated in recent years because of its inverse association with obesity and insulin resistance, and because many studies have linked lower circulating levels of SHBG to metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, polycystic ovary syndrome, and early puberty. The purpose of this review is to summarize molecular, clinical, endocrine, and epidemiological findings to illustrate how measurement of plasma SHBG may be useful in clinical medicine in children.

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          Most cited references 112

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          Sex hormone-binding globulin and risk of type 2 diabetes in women and men.

          Circulating sex hormone-binding globulin levels are inversely associated with insulin resistance, but whether these levels can predict the risk of developing type 2 diabetes is uncertain. We performed a nested case-control study of postmenopausal women in the Women's Health Study who were not using hormone therapy (359 with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes and 359 controls). Plasma levels of sex hormone-binding globulin were measured; two polymorphisms of the gene encoding sex hormone-binding globulin, SHBG, that were robustly associated with the protein levels were genotyped and applied in mendelian randomization analyses. We then conducted a replication study in an independent cohort of men from the Physicians' Health Study II (170 with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes and 170 controls). Among women, higher plasma levels of sex hormone-binding globulin were prospectively associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes: multivariable odds ratios were 1.00 for the first (lowest) quartile of plasma levels, 0.16 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.08 to 0.33) for the second quartile, 0.04 (95% CI, 0.01 to 0.12) for the third quartile, and 0.09 (95% CI, 0.03 to 0.21) for the fourth (highest) quartile (P<0.001 for trend). These prospective associations were replicated among men (odds ratio for the highest quartile of plasma levels vs. the lowest quartile, 0.10; 95% CI, 0.03 to 0.36; P<0.001 for trend). As compared with homozygotes of the respective wild-type allele, carriers of a variant allele of the SHBG single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs6259 had 10% higher sex hormone-binding globulin levels (P=0.005), and carriers of an rs6257 variant had 10% lower plasma levels (P=0.004); variants of both SNPs were also associated with a risk of type 2 diabetes in directions corresponding to their associated sex hormone-binding globulin levels. In mendelian randomization analyses, the predicted odds ratio of type 2 diabetes per standard-deviation increase in the plasma level of sex hormone-binding globulin was 0.28 (95% CI, 0.13 to 0.58) among women and 0.29 (95% CI, 0.15 to 0.58) among men, a finding that suggests that sex hormone-binding globulin may have a causal role in the risk of type 2 diabetes. Low circulating levels of sex hormone-binding globulin are a strong predictor of the risk of type 2 diabetes in women and men. The clinical usefulness of both SHBG genotypes and plasma levels in stratification and intervention for the risk of type 2 diabetes warrants further examination. 2009 Massachusetts Medical Society
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            Causes and metabolic consequences of Fatty liver.

            Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease represent a serious threat to the health of the population worldwide. Although overall adiposity and particularly visceral adiposity are established risk factors for these diseases, in the recent years fatty liver emerged as an additional and independent factor. However, the pathophysiology of fat accumulation in the liver and the cross-talk of fatty liver with other tissues involved in metabolism in humans are not fully understood. Here we discuss the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of hepatic fat accumulation, particularly the roles of body fat distribution, nutrition, exercise, genetics, and gene-environment interaction. Furthermore, the effects of fatty liver on glucose and lipid metabolism, specifically via induction of subclinical inflammation and secretion of humoral factors, are highlighted. Finally, new aspects regarding the dissociation of fatty liver and insulin resistance are addressed.
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              Is serum gamma glutamyltransferase a marker of oxidative stress?

              The primary role of cellular gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT) is to metabolize extracellular reduced glutathione (GSH), allowing for precursor amino acids to be assimilated and reutilized for intracellular GSH synthesis. Paradoxically, recent experimental studies indicate that cellular GGT may also be involved in the generation of reactive oxygen species in the presence of iron or other transition metals. Although the relationship between cellular GGT and serum GGT is not known and serum GGT activity has been commonly used as a marker for excessive alcohol consumption or liver diseases, our series of epidemiological studies consistently suggest that serum GGT within its normal range might be an early and sensitive enzyme related to oxidative stress. For example, serum and dietary antioxidant vitamins had inverse, dose-response relations to serum GGT level within its normal range, whereas dietary heme iron was positively related to serum GGT level. More importantly, serum GGT level within its normal range positively predicted F2-isoprostanes, an oxidative damage product of arachidonic acid, and fibrinogen and C-reactive protein, markers of inflammation, which were measured 5 or 15 years later, in dose-response manners. These findings suggest that strong associations of serum GGT with many cardiovascular risk factors and/or events might be explained by a mechanism related to oxidative stress. Even though studies on serum and/or cellular GGT is at a beginning stage, our epidemiological findings suggest that serum GGT might be useful in studying oxidative stress-related issues in both epidemiological and clinical settings.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol
                J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol
                JCRPE
                Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
                Galenos Publishing
                1308-5727
                1308-5735
                March 2016
                1 March 2016
                : 8
                : 1
                : 1-12
                Affiliations
                [1 ] University of Louisville Faculty of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes, Kentucky, USA
                Author notes
                * Address for Correspondence: University of Louisville Faculty of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes, Kentucky, USA Phone: +1 502 852 52 37 E-mail: sjwint01@ 123456louisville.edu
                Article
                1612
                10.4274/jcrpe.2764
                4805039
                26761949
                © Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology, Published by Galenos Publishing.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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