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      Visceral Glomerular Epithelial Cell DNA Synthesis in Experimental and Human Membranous Disease

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          Background: Membranous nephropathy (MN) is a ‘non-proliferative’ glomerulonephritis. However, visceral glomerular epithelial cell (vGEC) proliferating cell nuclear antigen staining and increased glomerular histone mRNA in passive Heymann nephritis (PHN), suggest that vGECs may enter the cell cycle and undergo DNA synthesis. We used in situ hybridisation for histone mRNA, an S-phase specific marker, to investigate this possibility and identify the cellular origin of histone mRNA in PHN and MN. Methods: PHN was induced in 16 Sprague-Dawley rats. There were 8 saline/serum controls. 12 animals were sacrificed on days 5 and 10. Renal biopsies from 10 proteinuric cases with MN and matched controls were studied. Results: Day-5 Heymann animals demonstrated more S-phase cells/glomerulus than controls (0.53 ± 0.09 vs. 0.195 ± 0.045; p < 0.01). Glomerular S-phase cells were also increased in patients compared to controls (0.24 ± 0.07 vs. 0.04 ± 0.018; p < 0.03). In both experimental and human MN, the peripheral location and morphology of glomerular histone mRNA-positive cells was typical of vGECs. Conclusion: The results in PHN indicate that vGECs recently injured with antibody and complement enter into the cell cycle and undergo DNA synthesis. The S-phase vGECs in MN may indicate the persistence of immune injury. Whether or not this process leads to cell replication is open to question.

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          Functional identity of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and a DNA polymerase-delta auxiliary protein.

          The mechanism of replication of the simian virus 40 (SV40) genome closely resembles that of cellular chromosomes, thereby providing an excellent model system for examining the enzymatic requirements for DNA replication. Only one viral gene product, the large tumour antigen (large-T antigen), is required for viral replication, so the majority of replication enzymes must be cellular. Indeed, a number of enzymatic activities associated with replication and the S phase of the cell cycle are induced upon SV40 infection. Cell-free extracts derived from human cells, when supplemented with immunopurified SV40 large-T antigen support efficient replication of plasmids that contain the SV40 origin of DNA replication. Using this system, a cellular protein of relative molecular mass 36,000 (Mr = 36K) that is required for the elongation stage of SV40 DNA replication in vitro has been purified and identified as a known cell-cycle regulated protein, alternatively called the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) or cyclin. It was noticed that, in its physical characteristics, PCNA closely resembles a protein that regulates the activity of calf thymus DNA polymerase-delta. Here we show that PCNA and the polymerase-delta auxiliary protein have similar electrophoretic behaviour and are both recognized by anti-PCNA human autoantibodies. More importantly, both proteins are functionally equivalent; they stimulate SV40 DNA replication in vitro and increase the processivity of calf thymus DNA polymerase-delta. These results implicate a novel animal cell DNA polymerase, DNA polymerase-delta, in the elongation stage of replicative DNA synthesis in vitro.

            Author and article information

            Nephron Exp Nephrol
            Cardiorenal Medicine
            S. Karger AG
            August 1998
            15 July 1998
            : 6
            : 4
            : 352-358
            a Department of Nephrology, Leicester General Hospital, Leicester; b Richard Bright Renal Unit, Southmead Hospital, Bristol, and c Department of Pathology, University of Leicester, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester, UK and d Renal Section, Boston University Medical Center, Boston, Mass., USA
            20542 Exp Nephrol 1998;6:352–358
            © 1998 S. Karger AG, Basel

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            Page count
            Pages: 7
            Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/20542
            Original Paper

            Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

            Proliferation, Histone, Podocyte


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