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      Comparison of fundus fluorescein angiography, optical coherence tomography and optical coherence tomography angiography features of macular changes in Eales disease: a case series

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          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Purpose

          To study the macular features in Eales disease patients observed with fundus fluorescein angiography (FA), optical coherence tomography (OCT) and optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA).

          Methods

          A cross-sectional study was done on treatment naïve 31 eyes (23 patients) with Eales disease. Baseline parameters such as Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), slit-lamp bio microscopy (SLB), indirect ophthalmoscopy, FA, spectral-domain OCT {quantitative (central macular thickness [CMT]) and qualitative analysis on SD-OCT} and OCTA were performed. Any media opacity precluding the above investigations was excluded.

          Results

          Macular findings comprised of- epiretinal membrane, macular exudation, full thickness macular hole, sub internal limiting membrane bleed, cystoid macular oedema, neurosensory detachment and retinal thickening. Sixteen (51.6%) of our patients had macular changes as seen on all modalities together. SLB and indirect ophthalmoscopy missed macular findings in 50% patients and FA in 18.8% patients. OCT and OCTA diagnosed all macular findings. On comparison of mean BCVA in patients with macular involvement on FA, OCT and OCTA, compared to those without macular involvement, patients with macular involvement had lower BCVA (p 0.000, 0.01 and 0.001 respectively). Thus, FA missed many patients who had significant macular involvement and hence less vision.

          Conclusion

          Eales disease though described in literature as classically being peripheral retina disease process, also has macular involvement. OCT and OCTA are useful guides to evaluation of macular involvement in these patients. The latter seems to be superior to FA in detecting macular abnormalities in this ailment. OCTA is non-invasive and shows deep capillary plexus changes which are not shown by any other modality.

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          Most cited references 18

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          A review of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA)

          Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is a new, non-invasive imaging technique that generates volumetric angiography images in a matter of seconds. This is a nascent technology with a potential wide applicability for retinal vascular disease. At present, level 1 evidence of the technology’s clinical applications doesn’t exist. In this paper, we introduce the technology, review the available English language publications regarding OCTA, and compare it with the current angiographic gold standards, fluorescein angiography (FA) and indocyanine green angiography (ICGA). Finally we summarize its potential application to retinal vascular diseases. OCTA is quick and non-invasive, and provides volumetric data with the clinical capability of specifically localizing and delineating pathology along with the ability to show both structural and blood flow information in tandem. Its current limitations include a relatively small field of view, inability to show leakage, and proclivity for image artifact due to patient movement/blinking. Published studies hint at OCTA’s potential efficacy in the evaluation of common ophthalmologic diseases such age related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic retinopathy, artery and vein occlusions, and glaucoma. OCTA can detect changes in choroidal blood vessel flow and can elucidate the presence of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in a variety of conditions but especially in AMD. It provides a highly detailed view of the retinal vasculature, which allows for accurate delineation of the foveal avascular zone (FAZ) in diabetic eyes and detection of subtle microvascular abnormalities in diabetic and vascular occlusive eyes. Optic disc perfusion in glaucomatous eyes is notable as well on OCTA. Further studies are needed to more definitively determine OCTA’s utility in the clinical setting and to establish if this technology may offer a non-invasive option of visualizing the retinal vasculature in detail.
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            Quantitative confocal imaging of the retinal microvasculature in the human retina.

            We investigated quantitatively the distribution of blood vessels in different neural layers of the human retina.
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              NEW INSIGHT INTO THE MACULAR DEEP VASCULAR PLEXUS IMAGED BY OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY ANGIOGRAPHY.

              To describe the macular deep capillary plexus (DCP) in normal eyes using optical coherence tomography angiography.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                k.rajurkar25@gmail.com
                Journal
                J Ophthalmic Inflamm Infect
                J Ophthalmic Inflamm Infect
                Journal of Ophthalmic Inflammation and Infection
                Springer Berlin Heidelberg (Berlin/Heidelberg )
                1869-5760
                14 December 2020
                14 December 2020
                2020
                : 10
                Affiliations
                GRID grid.418351.a, ISNI 0000 0004 1799 796X, Guru Nanak Eye Centre, , Near Zakir Hussain College, ; Maharaja Ranjeet Singh Marg, 64 Khamba, New Delhi, Delhi, 110002 India
                Article
                220
                10.1186/s12348-020-00220-4
                7733914
                33314007
                © The Author(s) 2020

                Open AccessThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

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                © The Author(s) 2020

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